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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the levels of structural complexity?
• Chemical level: atoms & molecules (atoms combine to form molecules)
• Cellular level: cells are made up of molecules
• Tissue level: tissue is made up of similar cells
• Organ level: an organ is made up of different types of tissue
• System level: a system consists of different organs that work together
• Organism level: the human body (organism) is made out of many organ systems
What type of cells are the cells of the human body?
What three components are the cells of the human body composed of?
1. Plasma membrane
2. Cytoplasm
3. Organelles
What is the process of Specialization?
• Different cells perform different specialized functions (such as movement or hormone production)
• To be able to perform their certain highly developed functions, cells have to become specialized (structure and function)
Cells become specialized through what process?
Differentiation (maturation)
What are are seven major cellular functions?
1. Metabolic absorption *
2. Respiration *
3. Excretion *
4. Reproduction
5. Movement
6. Conductivity
7. Secretion
What else is cellular respiration called?
What is the process of cellular respiration/oxidation?
• All cells absorb oxygen and use it to transform nutrients into energy in the form of ATP
• Cellular oxidation occurs in organelles called mitochondria
What is the function of Lysosomes?
compose the cell’s digestive system, they break down large molecules have enzymes that break down waste products until they are small enough to leave the cell
What are the three types of muscle?
Smooth: GI tract
Skeletal: voluntary
What cells perform secretion?
Endocrine glands: hormones
Exocrine glands: salivatory, sweat
Cellular components?
A. Nucleus
B. Plasma membrane
C. Cytoplasm
An aqueous solution the fills the space between the nucleus and the plasma membrane
Contains cytoplasmic organelles
D. Cytoplasmic organelles
E. Cytoskeleton
Two types of Endoplasmic Reticulum?
Smooth & Rough
Rough has Ribosomes, Why?
Synthesize Protein, RNA-site
Function of the golgi apparatus?
Packaging proteins into secretory
3 functions of the Mitochondria?
*Cellular energy metabolism
*Contains electron transport chain
*Generates most of the cell’s ATP
Functions of Lysosomes?
*Digest most cellular substances down
to their basic form (amino acids, fatty
acids, sugars)
*Also causes cellular *self-destruction
when necessary
Function of cytoskeleton?
“Bone and muscle” of cell
The nucleus is surrounded by?
What if the nucleus isn't in the center?
Indicates disease
What does the nucleolous do?
stores and processes RNA
What binding protein folds the DNA into chromosomes to prevent breakage?
Before it is folded into chromosomes the DNA exists in what easily breakable form?
What are the functions of the Nucleous?
a) Cell division
b) Control of genetic information
c) Replication and repair of DNA
d) Transcription of genetic information stored in DNA
How does the DNA get transcripted?
• The DNA stays in the nucleus
• The genetic information is transcribed into RNA
• RNA mediates the information stored in DNA to rest of the cell
in order to make proteins, RNA moves from nucleus to cell
• Processing of RNA occurs in the nucleolus
• RNA moves into the cytoplasm and directs cellular activities
What are the 3 types of RNA?
1. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
2. Transport RNA (tRNA)
3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Function of Genes?
1. the basic unit of inheritance
2. blueprints/codes for making proteins
3. There are 50-100 thousand structural genes!
Structure of Gene?
Composed of sequences of DNA (specifically sequences of nucleotides that make up the total DNA/genetic material a cell possesses)
How are some genes related to disease?
An error in a gene leads to genetic disease