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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Pathophysiology?
Study of the cellular and organ changes associated with disease
Disease
"not comfortable"
Normal physiological and possibly anatomical characteristics are disrupted
Etiology
Cause. Study of the cause of homeostatic disruptions that lead to disease
Etiologic factors
1. Biological agents
2. Trauma
3. Chemical reagents
4. Nutritional changes
5. Genetic disruption
Congenital
factors present at birth
Acquired effects
Caused by events that occur after birth
Idiopathic diseases
Arising spontaneously or from an unknown cause
Pathogenesis
Process of disease development
Clinical Manifestations
Early or new recognizable changes, described as:
Symptoms - subjective (by patient)
Signs - objective observed physical changes
Sequelae - impairment or problems caused by disease (complication)
Diagnosis
Determining what the disease is and its underlying causes
What are evidence based guidelines?
Diagnosis is based on clinicians expertise in the field; best evidence available in scientific and clinical research areas.
What are practice guidelines?
Published guidelines offering step by step procedures for diagnosis, evidence based, reviewed by experts in the field.
Clinical Coruse
Progression of the disease
Acute
Severe but limited time frame - immediate problem
Chronic
Slow developing, long lasting time frame, may follow an acute insult
Subacute
Between acute and chronic in character
What is cellular adaptation?
Cells adapt to persistent stress by changing their size, number and/or shape; storing molecules in abnormal amounts.
Hypertrophy
Increase in size of cells due to increased workload, either normal or pathologic.
Hyperplasia
Increase in number of cells due to increased workload, hormonal changes or tissue changes
Metaplasia
Replacement of one adult cell with another adult cell to better endure change, stress or chronic irritation.
Dysplasia
Deranged cell growth of specific tissue; abnormal size, shape and/or appearance. Can precede cancerous changes
Homeostasis
Dynamic, steady state
Name four causes of cellular Injury.
Mechanical/physical - trauma
Chemical - toxins disrupt function
Biologic - viruses
Nutritional - lack or excess of building block molecules
Mechanical/physical trauma injury
Mechanical force - fractures
Extreme temps - denatures proteins in cell membranes and blood plasma - enzymatic breakdown; causes vascular injury
Electrical forces - electrocution
Radiation Injury
Ionizing radiation: frequency high enough to knock molecules off electrons; above visible & UV
Disrupts cellular molecular structure
Mutates DNA or interrupts replication
Can cause fibrosis & scarring
UV radiation: lower frequency, disrupts DNA
Chemical injury
Chemicals can:
Block ion transport sites
Destroy cell membrane and cell integrity
Interfere with cellular metabolism
Upset ionic and osmotic balances
Interfere with cell division
Causes: carbon monoxide, alcohol, coal dust, lead, mercury
Biological injury
Viruses: take over genetic reproduction of cell
Bacteria: make endotoxins that disrupt cellular metabolism
Parasites: take away energy and nutrients from host
Nutritional injury
Lack of vitamins and nutrients cause breakdown of biological function
Overabundance of fats, glucose and some vitamins can contribute to disease
What are Free Radicals?
Molecules with an unpaired electron in the outer electron shell
Hypoxia
Inadequate supply of oxygen to tissue that is below physiologic levels despite adequate perfusion of the tissue by blood.