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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
136-145 mEq/L
What Sodium does
1. ECF cation
2. A shift in Na triggers a fluid volume change to restore normal solute and water ratios
3. Helps maintain acid-base balance
4. Activates nerve and muscle cells, involved in muscle contraction and the Na+/K+ pump
5. InfluencesH2O distribution with Cl-
6. Regulated by the kidney through tubular reabsorption
7.Aldosterone, a hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex, works to increase the reabsorption of Na+ by the kidney
8. Natriuretic peptides increase Na+ and water excretion
Symptoms of Hypo- Sodium
1. Sleepiness
2. Weakness
3. Lethargy
4. N/V or anorexia
5. Behavioral and personality changes
6. Decreased tendon reflexes
7. Headache
8. Seizure
9. Coma
Symptoms of Hyper- Sodium
1. Increased thirst
2. Irritability, restlessness, confuseion, agitation
3. Seizures
4. Coma
Treatment of Hypo-Sodium
1. Fluid restriction
2. Monitor I/O, VS, Wt., lab values, urine Na+, specific gravity
Treatment of Hyper- Sodium
1. Push fluids
2. D5W
3. Inspect for edema
4. Monitor I/O, VS, Wt., lab values, urine Na+, specific gravity
98-106 mEq/L
What Chloride does
1. Main ECF anion
2. Passive transport, follows Na+
Symptoms of Hypo-Chloride
1. Hypoventilation
2. tetany
3. Paresthesia of the extremities
4. Restless, confusion, convulsions
Symptoms of Hyper- Chloride
1. Hyperventilation to blow off excess CO2
2. Hypotension
3. Decreased cardiac output
4. Peripheral vasodilation
5. Headache
6. Lethargy
Treatment of Hypo-Choloride
1. Increased NaCl in the diet
2. Correct GI symptoms
3. Seizure precautions
Treatment of Hyper- Chloride
1. Correct fluid imbalance by giving IV fluids
2. Give sodium bicarb and corrects pH
3. Monitor patient's level of consciousness and respiratory status.
3.5-5 mEq/L
What Potassium does
1. Main ICF cation
2. Regulates cell excitability and membrane potential for muscle contraction, cardiac muscle contraction, and nerve impulse contraction.
3. Na+/K+ pump
4. Affects the cell's electrical status
5. ICF osmolality
6. K+ and insulin are required to move glucose into the ICF and for metabolism of Carbohydrates and proteins
Symptoms of Hypo-Potassium
1. Muscle weakness and cramps, fatigue, decreased tendon reflexes
2. Postural hypotension
3. Constipation
4. EKG changes and arrhythmias
5. Confusion
Symptoms of Hyper-Potassium
1. EKG changes and arrhythmias
2. Nausea, diarrhea, hyperactive bowel sounds with intermittent colic, numbness/tingling of the face, tongue, feet, or hands
3. Fatigue, drowsiness
4. Irritability, mental confusion
Treatment of Hypo-Potassium
1. Replace K+ orally or by IV
2. Monitor I/O, heart monitor, labs, mental status
Treatment of Hyper-Potassium
1. Kayxelate
2. Insulin, bicarb, and dextrose fluids
3. Dialysis
4. Goal: increase excretion and move the potassium into the cells
5. Monitor I/O, heart monitor, labs, mental status
Total Calcium
9-10.5 mg/dl
Ionized (free) serum Calcium
4.5-5.6 mg/dl
What Calcium does
1. Found in equal amounts in ECF and ICF
2. Major cation for bones and teeth, important for their development and maintenance
3. Found in cell membranes and maintains their shape, and is required for muscle contraction, necessary for the synaptic release of neurotransmitters for transition of nerve impulses, cardiac and skeletal muscle contractions are initiated by release of calcium, Ca++/Na+/K+/Mg++ help to maintain muscle tone
4. Aids in coagulation
Symptoms of Hypo-Calcium
1. Confusion, convulsions, insomnia
2. Parashesias around the mouth and hands
3. Carpopedal spasm, tetany
4. Hyperreflexia
5. Brittle nails, osteoporosis, periodontaldisease
6. Diarrhea
7. Positive Chvostek and Trousseau signs
8. Cardiac arrhythmias
Symptoms of Hyper-Calcium
1. N/V
2. Constipation
3. Confusion, weakness, lethargy
4. Polydipsia, polyuria, dehydration
5. Decreased deep tendon reflexes
6. Bone pain
7. Cardiac arrhythmias or arrest
Treatment of Hypo-Calcium
1. D/C meds known to lower Ca++
2. Administer Ca++
3. Treat low Mg++ level
4. Treat causes
5. Monitor heart
6. Calcitriol/ Vit. D
Treatments of Hyper-Calcium
1. D/C Ca++ meds
2. Treat causes
3. IV NS with Lasiz
4. Phosphates
5. Calcitonin
6. Meds for bone pain, N/V
7. Laxitives
8. Heart Monitor
Phosphate Serum Phosphorus
3-4.5 mg/dl
What Phosphate Serum Phosphorus does
Phosphorous and calcium are generally opposite, high phosphorus = low Ca++
Symptoms of Hypo-Phosphate Serum Phosphorus
1. Causes reduced oxygen transport by RBCs, hypoxia can occur, also bradycardia
2. Dysfunctions in WBCs and platelets causing increased risk of infection and bleeding
3. Affects nerve and muscle function
4. Bone resorption occurs, which may lead to rickets or osteomalacia
Symptoms of Hyper-Phosphate Serum Phosphorus
Symptoms are generally those of hypocalcemia
Treatment of Hypo-Phosphate Serum Phosphorus
1. Treat underlying cause
2. A low phosphorous level is generally not life threatening, but administration of phosphate salts can be.
Treatment of Hyper-Phosphate Serum Phosphorus
1. Correct underlying cause
2. Dialysis, if renal failure is present
3. Give Aluminum hydroxide-binds to phosphate in the GI tract and eliminates it.
1.3-2.1 mEq/L
What Magnesium does
1. A major ICF cation
2. 40-60% of the body's magnesium is stored in the bone, with the remainder in the soft tissues and muscle cells
3. Aids in protein synthesis, necessary for the formation and function of healthy bones
4. Important in nerve impulse transmission
5. Regulated by the kidney, and low levels cause the kidneys to conserve
Symptoms of Hypo-Magnesium
1. Neuromuscular irritability, twitching, nystagmus, tremors, cramping, tetany
2. Disorientation
3. Depression
4. Hyperreflexia
5. Swallowing difficulties, N/V
6. Positive Chvostek's and Trousseau signs
7. Monitor for cardiac arrhythmias
Symptoms of Hyper-Magnesium
1. Increased perspiration
2. Muscle weakness, decreased deep tendon reflexes
3. Nausea, vomiting
4. Hypotension
5. Cardiac arrhythmias
6. Respiratory compromise
Treatment of Hypo-Magnesium
Give PO or IV Mg++
Treatment of Hyper-Magnesium
1. Monitor cardiac and respiratory status, I/O, neruo status, labs
2. Give IV fluids, diuretics, calcium gluconate