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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How many permanent teeth are there?
32
Which sphincter is associated with GERD?
Cardiac Spincter of Stomach
Which cells produce acid?
Parietal
What is the lack of desire to eat associated with nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea?
Anorexia
What is the subjective experience associated with various conditions and hypersalivation and tachycardia?
Nausea
What is difficult or infrequent defaction?
Constipation
What are varicose veins that are in the esophagus that can tear and bleed?
Varices
What is a tear in the esophagus that is caused by vomiting and wretching?
Mallory-Weiss Tear
What is caused by acid reflux eroding the esophagus
Barrett's esophagitis
What is the narrowing of the esophagus caused by fibrosis. "Food gets caught in throat" Need more to drink.
Stricture
What is the relaxation of the cardiac sphincter that allows gastric contents to come into the esophagus called?
GERD (Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease)
How do you treat GERD?
Lose weight, avoid acid food/drinks, DON'T PUT ON MUSCLE RELAXERS. Proton pumps, Prilosec, put H.O.B. on books. Put on REGLAN
What is it called when you have white stuff on your tongue. (Diabetics are susceptible to this)
Candidas Albicans (Yeast Infection)
What is imparied swallowing related to the following disorders:
CVA, ALS
Dysphagia
How do you test for Dysphagia
Give them an ice chip to see if they can swallow it
What is the difference b/t an EGD and a Capsule Endoscopy
The EGD is a tube, the Capsule endoscopy is a pill with a camera on it that allows you to go places the EGD can't/
What is an inflammatory disorder of the gastric mucosa that can be acute or chronic
Gastritis
Which gastritis is caused by drugs or chemicals
Acute
Which gastritis is caused by thinning and degeneration of the stomach lining?
Chronic
What is delayed stomach emptying, often related to diabetes?
Gastroparesis
What is a protrusion of the upper part of the stomach through the diaphragm and into the thorax called?
Hiatal hernia
What is a narrowing or blocking of the opening between the stomach and the duodenum called/
Pyloric Obstruction
What is the erosion of the lining of the lower esophagus, stomach, or duodenum
Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)
What are risk factors for PUD?
Smoking, Age, NSAIDS, ETOH, RA, Cirrhosis, H. Pylori
How will your vomit look with PUD
like coffee grounds
What is vomiting blood called
hematemesis
What does botulism (can foods), salmonella (eggs, pork), Celiac Disease, Lactose intolerance cause?
PUD
What can't you digest with Celiac Disease?
Wheat
What is the disease that occurs when a peptic ulcer erodes at a lining that occurs very quickly and you will need to give blood to these patients?
Erosive PUD
What ulcers are usually small, superficial, and multiple?
Acute Peptic Ulcers
What is the Acute PUD that is associated with burns called?
Curling's ulcer
What is the Acute PUD that is associated with CNS lesions called?
Cushing's ulcers
What is the thing we test for with PUD that makes someone more present to cancer of the stomach.
H. Pylori
What is the disease associated with No structural or chemical alterations?
IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome)
How do people treat their IBS?
Eat more fiber (fruits, veggies, etc)
What is the disorder where the bowel is not profused arterially like it should be and dies, causing abdominal distention, and can cause stroke of the bowel?
Ischemic Bowel
What are the two Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Crohn's disease and Ulcerative Colitis
What is a herniation or outpouching of mucosa through the muscle layers in the sigmoid colon?
Diverticula
What is the outpouching of the bowel that is asymptomatic
Diverticulosis
When is pain felt in the lower left quadrant?
Diverticulitis
What disease is most common in the elderly?
Diverticular disease
When will finger like projections frmo the mucosal epithelium occur?
Colon Cancer
What occurs in the elderly, spinal cord injuries, and traveling overseas?
Fecal incontinence
What is a vericose vein in the rectal area that is itchy and painful and due to trying to pass a difficult stool?
Hemmorhoid
What is a loss of support from your intestines?
Hernia
What is the thickened wall from inflammation and scarring that can affect the lining of the entire GI mucosa system?
Crohn's Disease
What is a communicating tract that comes between organs to the outside of the abdomen called?
Fistula
What is it called when the tissue of the rectum becomes inflamed with multiple ulcerations noted?
Ulcerative Colitis
Does chronic inflammation lead to cancer in UC?
yes
When you have a Pedunculated Colon Polyp, what is important that you do?
A colonoscopy to make sure it's not cancerous
What is an internal varicose vein caused by straining having a bowel movement or from pregnancy?
Internal Hemmorhoid
What are painful defacation, rectal itching/bleeding/pain symptoms of?
Thrombosed External Hemmorhoids
What is Abnormally High Blood Pressure in the portal venous system known as?
Portal Hypertension
What is the normal Portal level vs. hypertensive
3, 10
What Portal hypertension caused by?
Obstruction or impede of blood flow through any component of the portal venous system or vena cava
What is the accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity known as?
Ascites
What is the most common cause of ascites?
Cirrhosis
What is the liver dysfunction and collateral vessels that shunt blood around the liver to the systemic circulation that permit toxins absorbed from the GI tract straight to the brain called?
Hepatic encephalopathy
What causes Jaundice?
Hyperbilirubinemia, Hemolysis of RBCs, Impaired bilirubin uptake
What is hepatocyte injury caused by cellular immune responses?
Hepatitis A
What is VIral replication, coninfection with viral mutation, inflammation, and cellular necrosis?
Hepatits B
What is Coninfection with HBV, Severe cell injury progressing to cirrhosis
Hepatitis D
What is hepatocyte injury caused by immune response, inflammation, fibrosis, leading to cirrhosis?
Hepatitis C
What is viral replication where the liver is cytotoxic, Immune response caused inflammation and cholestasis?
Hepatitis E
Which is infectious hepatitis?
A
Which is Serum Hepatitis?
B
Which can cause Acute hepatitis?
A, B, D, C
Which hepatitis can cause chronic liver disease, liver failure?
B, E
Which hepatitis is a flavivirus and is transmitted perianally and sexually?
G
What is the clinical syndrome resulting in severe impairment or necrosis of liver cells and potential liver failure that is IRREVERSIBLE
Fulminant hepatitis
What are 3 common causes of Cirrhosis
ETOH consumption, Viral hepatits, Fatty liver
Can you have Portal hypertension with Cirrhosis?
yes
What is a normal PT time? What does PT measure
10-14 , ability to clot
What is a normal PTT time? What does PTT measure?
25-40 , evaluates the cause of bleeding
What is cholelithiasis
Gall Stone formation
What are 2 types of cholelithiasis?
Cholesterol and pigmented
What are risk factors for cholelithiasis?
Obesity, middle age, female, rapid weight loss, Indians, genetics
What does a fatty meal bring on?
Cholelithiasis
What test is radioactive iodine given to see how the gall bladder is functioning?
HIDA
What is characterized by acute onset of abdominal pain resulting from enzymatic necrosis and inflammation of the pancreas?
Acute pancreatits
What are signs of acute pancreatitis?
Pain in the abdomen, N/V/fever, Increase pulse, abdominal swelling
What infection could be caused by stool that does not escape?
Appendicitis
When will you have yellow diarrhea
Appendicitis when gallbladder is infected
What is guaiac
taking a stool sample
What is a scope that can be done at the office that doesn't go deep into the rectum?
Proctoscopy
What is the normal level for A protein that is elevated in the liver (Alkaline phosphatase)
20-125
What is normal AST
6-21
What is normal ALT
0-48
What is normal LDH (measures Lactae dehydrogenase)
0-250
What is normal total bilirubin?
.20-1.5