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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
B lymphocytes provide humoral immunity through the process of...
production of antibodies
What is the main function of B lymphocytes?
to produce antibodies that attack foreign antigen
Immune cells distinguish "self" from "non-self" by recognizing
Major Histocompatability Antigens (HLA)
Active Acquired Immunity
obtained when an individual is exposed to an antigen naturally or with a vaccination
A decrease in cell-mediated (T cell) immunity decreases at purberty because of
atrophy of the thymus
Site of T cell maturation
In contrast with the inflammatory response, the immune response...
reacts slower, recognizes specific invaders, and has memory.
Inflammatory cells respond in the same manner to any foreign antigen.
Endogenous Antigens
originate from within the body (ex, the body's own tissue)
Major Histocompatability Class I (MHC I) antigens are found on which cells?
ALL body cells except red blood cells.
Type O Blood
Has zero Antigen present (neither A nor B).
Universal Donor Blood
O Blood

(neither A nor B antigen present, A and B antibodies)
Universal Recipient Blood
AB Blood because it will not produce antibodies against any other blood types.

(A and B antigen present, neither A nor B antibodies)
Hemolytic Disease
a lethal condition in newborns caused byt hte destruction of fetal blood by maternal antibodies.
Most common cause of hemolytic disease
Immune reaction against Rh D antigen.
Clonal selection in humoral immunity
This is how B cells develop specificity for particular antigens.
Clonal selection in humoral immunity occurs when
lymphocyte precursor cells in the bone marrow cells develop the ability to interact with all of the possible antigens it may encounter
Which process confers long lasting immunity against a specific organism?
Production of memory cells
the process of covering a bacteria with antibodies to attract phagocytes who in turn destroy the microrganism.
What does the Fc portion of antibodies on an opsonized micro organism do?
Attracts phagocytes who in turn can destroy the foreign invader.
The main antibody transferred from a mother to an infant in breast milk. IgA is found in the secretions from any mucosal surface, including the mammary glands. Confers Passive Immunity.
T cytotoxic cell
main function is direct cell killing.

They destroy microorganisms or cancer cells by releasing toxins such as perforin and inducing apoptosis of malignant cells.
T helper cells
stimulate BOTH the cell-mediated and humoral immune responses
Monoclonal Antibodies
can be created in a lab by proliferating a B cell clone whose antibodies will only react with a single type of antigen (used to treat cancer).
CD4 Receptors
Found on T helper cells and bind to the surface of macrophages and B cells.
How do Natural Killer (NK) cells differ from T cytoxic (Tc) cells?
NK cells do not bind to specific antigen but target any infected or malignant cell.
Is the ....
Is the...
Is the predominant antibody in an allergic response AND in fighting parasites.
Is the...
A vaccine generally consists of...
an attenuated antigen or
a dead antigen or
a detoxified antigen
Which individuals may have difficulty developing immunity from vaccines?
Individuals taking drugs that suppress the immune system.
Interluekin 1
A cytokine produced by macrophages to attract and stimulate T helper cells
T Helper 1 cells
stimulate the proliferation and differentiation T cytoxic cells and macrophages.
Which WBC plays the most active role in allergic reactions?
The body's first line of defense against microorganisms
skin and mucous membranes
What is the primary cell of immunity?
Lymphocytes (B and T cells)
What is a hapten?
It is...
What is an antigen?
A molecule capable of inducing an immune response by the lymphocytes.
Epitope (Antigenic Determinant)
The portion of the antigenic molecule that is recognized by the lymphocyte.
Condition in which the immune cells attack the individual's own tissues as if they were invaders.

(Immune system is said to be "hyper vigilant")
Plasma Cells
B lymphocytes that have developed the ability to produce antibodies during an immune response.
What is the result of transfusion with incompatible blood types? (e.g., A given to O).
Agglutination and lysis of red blood cells.
Fc portion of antibody
Interacts with inflammatory cells and proteins.
Primary Immune Response
mounted after first exposure to antigen X (IgM is first to respond so high levels of IgM are seen in the blood).
Secondary Immune Response
mounted after second exposure to antigen X (higher levels of IgG than IgM).
IgA Deficiency
results in recurrent infections of the mucosal membranes. The systems most commonly afflicted are the respiratory and gastrointestinal linings.
What are macrophages?
phagocytees that are involved in processing, presentation, and recognition for the purpose of activating an immune response.
What is an immune complex?
An Antibody-Antigen Complex.
produced by virally infected cells to signal neighboring cells to increase their defences against viral invasion.
Which cells phagocytose antigen to present to T helper cells?
At birth, IgG levels are...
near adult levels but start to decrease as maternal antibodies are broken down.
T helper 1 and 2 cells
responsible for activating the immune response by releasing interleukins that stimulate other immune cells.
Adaptive Immune Response
Activated by T helper 1 and 2 cells
Older individuals are at increased risk for?
1) Auto-immune disease
2) Hypersensitivity reactions
3) Infections