Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/32

Click to flip

32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
MCV lab

type of anemia, causes
mean corpuscular volume

Nl normocytic anemia
microcytic anemia (sm RBC) - iron xu
macrocytic anemia (lg RBC) - B12, folate xu. Can't generate full set of chromosomes.
MCHC lab

measures?

if normal? if low?
mean corpuscular Hb concentration

Hb by %

normochromic, hypochromic (Fe xu)
MCH

measures?

if normal? if low?
mean corpuscular Hb

Hb by weight

normochromic, hypochromic (Fe xu)
TIBC

measures?
Total Iron Binding Capacity

Maximum Fe that could be bound to transferrin (produced in LV, low in LV dz)
Serum Haptoglobin

measures?

fxn of haptoglobin?
Index of Hemolysis

If low, indicates high (intravascular) hemolysis

Binds Hb released from RBC destruction to keep Fe from excretion.
Direct Coomb's test

indicates?
autoimmune cause of hemolysis if test is +. Antibodies destroying RBCs.
Classifications of anemia by etiology:
Secondary to blood loss
Secondary to increased RBC hemolytic destruction
Secondary to decreased RBC production
Classifications of anemia secondary to blood loss:

lab results?
acute - normocytic, normochromic

chronic - looks like iron deficiency (GI bleed)
Classifications of anemia secondary to RBC destruction:
Immune - Hemolytic anemia of newborn due to Rh factor

Hereditary:
Enzyme xu - G6P dehydrogenase xu
Protein abnormality - spherocytosis (SP sees RBCs as foreign and destroys them)
Hemoglobinopathy - defective Hb, SP destroys - sickle cell, thalassemia
Classifications of anemia secondary to decreased RBC production causes:
decreased bone marrow
chronic renal failure
dietary B12, iron, folate xu
Classification of anemia by RBC size:

causes?
microcytic - iron xu, thalassemia

macrocytic - B12, folate xu

normocytic - acute blood loss
Hemolytic anemias?

types?
s/sx?
causes?
Intravascular - RBC destruction in vessels. No SPomegaly, sickle cell, G6PD.

Extravascular - RBS destruction by SP. SPomegaly, hereditary spherocytois, thalassemia
Aplastic anemia:

etiology?
s/sx, labs?
"No synthesis"

deficient BM = panocytopenia (no blood cells of any kind made)

medications, cancer

biopsy = hypocellular BM
Iron Deficiency Anemia:

labs?
common cause?
microcytic, hypochromic RBCs
low MCV/MCHC, low iron & ferritin, high TIBC

GI bleed
Megaloblastic Anemia:

etiology?
labs?
treatment?
B12 or folate xu - needed for DNA synthesis

pancytopenia (not as low a # as aplastic)
oval macrocytosis
hypersegmented neutrophil

B12 and folate together. W/o B12, peripheral neuropathy is possible due to lack of myelination
Causes of B12 deficiency?
low dietary B12 - strict veg

Intrinsic factor xu - gastrectomy, pernicious anemia (autoimmune attacking parietal cells)

Malabsorption - parasites, resection of illeum, Chron's, antibiotic abuse
G6PD xu:

cause?
factors?
s/sx?
labs?
Glucose - 6Phosphate - Dehydrogenase Deficiency

w/o G6PD cells RBCs susceptible to oxidative stress (fava beans, drugs, pollution) and will lyse

X-LR (fam. history), race (Med, AfAm)

episodic anemia

low RBCs, high Blbn, low haptoglobin
Sickle Cell Anemia:

cause?
labs?
s/sx?
Tx?
Hb S - betaglobin is abnormal

high unconjugated Blrb, hemoglobinemia, hemoglobinuria, sickle cells, 85% Hb S

high # of infections
vaso-occlusive painful crisis
aplastic crisis (low Hb concentration)
infarcts - SP, KD, bone, retina

Tx: hydroxyurea - stimulates Hb F production
Sickle Cell Infarcts:

organ?
manifestation?
SP - splenomegaly until @ 2 years, adult = autosplenectomy
Kd - papillary renal necrosis
bone - H-shaped fractures, femoral head collapse
retina - "sea fans" of vision loss
What are the hemolytic anemias?
G6PD xu
Sickle Cell Anemia
Hereditary Spherocytosis
Thalassemia
What are the clues for G6PD xu?
1) X-LR
2) intermittent anemia, after exposure to oxidative stressor
(fava beans, drugs like anti-malarials)
What are the clues for Sickle Cell Anemia?
1) AR (autosomal recessive)
2) African-American
3) sickle cells
4) HbS
What are the clues for Thalassemia?
1) Mediterranean
2) chipmunk cheeks, crew cut skull
3) requires transfusion --> hemosiderosis --> death from CHF
Hereditary Spherocytosis:

cause?
population?
morphology?
labs?
s/sx?
Tx?
1) AR spectrin defect --> loss of membrane surface --> loss of biconcave shape
2) small, round shape with no central pallor
3) high MCHC
Osmotic fragility (prone to burst)
low haptoglobin
high indirect bilirubin
Coomb's negative
4) anemia
splenomegaly
jaundice
GB stones
5) splenectomy
Types of Thalassemia?
beta thalassemia minor
beta thalassemia major
alpha thalassemia
Beta-Thalassemia

population
types
mechanism
Mediterranean and US

major: Hb F
minor: Hb A2

Bad gene leads to bad transcription, leads to deficient hemoglobin production = hypochromic, microcytic anemia. RBC lifespan shortened.
Alpha-Thalassemia

population
mechanism
Asia

No gene, no compensation --> fetal death
S/sx of Beta-Thalassemia:

Treatment?

MCC of death?
1) Severe anemia requiring transfusions --> hemosiderosis

2) Hepatosplenomegaly - LV/SP increase RBC destruction

3) mild icterus (yellow sclera)

4) chipmunk cheeks & "crew cut," due to BM expansion

Tx: Blood transfusion + iron chelation
folic acid supplementation
BM transplant

MCC of death: hemosiderosis
Define lymphoma:
Malignant neoplasm of cells found in lymphoid tissue.
Types of lymphomas
Hodgkin's and Non-Hodgkin's
Define leukemia:
Abnormal proliferation of one kind of hematopoetic cell, while others are decreased.
Types of luekemias:
Acute:
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia

Chronic:
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia