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33 Cards in this Set

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Blood is composed of:
Serum, plasma, plasma proteins

Blood cells - WBC, RBC, platelets
CBC is:

Includes what?
Complete Blood Count

#RBC: Hb, Hct, morphology, MCV, MCHC, MCH

#WBC: proportion of WBC types
-neutrophil
-eosinophil
-basophil
-lymphocytes

#Platelets
Composition of blood plasma?
92% water
6-8% protein
clotting factors
e-lytes
nutrients
Function of blood plasma?
E-lytes
Nutrients/building blocks
Buffer system (ph @ 7.4)
Hormones
Waste products
Electrolytes?
Na+
K+
Cl-
HCO3-
Ca++
Mg++
The plasma proteins are?

percentage?
Albumin 54%
Globulins 38%
Fibrinogen & Clotting Factors 7%
Albumin

produced where?
function?
too little = ?
From LV

Fxnx: Maintains oncotic pressure that keeps blood in vessels
Transport non water soluable substances (meds, bilirubin)

Too little = edema (pulm, pedal), ascites
Globulins

types?
produced where?
fxns?
alpha - transport bilirubin
beta - transport iron, copper
gamma - make up antibodies

made in LV or by B-lymphocytes

transports metals, fight infections
Serum: with or without clotting factors?
Without clotting factors
Plasma: with or without clotting factors?
With clotting factors
Types & functions of WBC:
Granulocytes:
- basophils
- eosinophils
- neutrophils
Lymphocytes:
- T-lymphs
- B-lymphs
Monocytes
Fxn of basophils?
mediate allergic reaction
Fxn of eosinophils?
allergy, parasitic infections
Fxn of neutrophils?
acute inflammation, bacterial infection, phagocytosis in blood
Fxn of T-lymphocytes?
cellular immune response
Fxn of B-lymphs?
humoral immune response (antibodies)
Fxn of monocytes?
Become macrophages for phagocytosis in tissues
Location of hematopoiesis

in adults?
in fetus?
Adults: bone marrow

Fetus:
Yolk sac, 3-8 wks
Liver, 6-30 wks
SP, 9-28 wks
BM, 28 wks+
platelet AKA?
thrombocytes
polycythemia?
elevated RBC count
anemia?
low RBC count
elevated neutrophils?
bacterial infection
elevated lymphocytes?
viral infection
elevated eosinophils?
parasitic infection or allergic reaction
low platelets?
thrombocytopenia
elevated platelets?
thrombocytosis
elevated ESR?
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate

inflammation

fall rate accelerated by presence of fibrinogen and other plasma proteins that increase with inflammation
hemostasis definition

main categories of disorders?

5 phases?
Stoppage of blood flow. Normal = seals vessel to prevent blood loss and hemorrhage.

Disorders:
- inappropriate clotting
- failure to clot

1) vessel spasm
2) platelet plug formation
3) blood coagulation, formation of fibrin clot
4) clot retraction
5) clot dissolution (fibrinolysis)
What activates intrinsic pathway of clotting cascade?

lab result?

factors involved?
endothelial tissue damage

elevated PTT

factors: XI, XII, VIII, IX (11, 12, 8, 9)
What activates extrinsic pathway of clotting cascade?

lab result?

factors involved?
tissue damage, trauma

elevated PT

factors: VII (7)
Common pathway

lab results?

factors involved?
elevated TT, PT and PTT

factors: II, V, X (2, 5, 10)
Where are clotting factors formed?

Required for active form?
Some depend on _____ ? Which?
All in LV except IV. So LV dz = loss of clotting, bleeding.

Must have Ca++ for active form
Some depend on Vit K: IX, X, VII, II (1972). No all burger diet.
Hypercoagulability increases risk of _________________ ?

arteries
veins
thromboembolism

arteries: stroke, myocardial infarction
veins: DVT (deep vein thrombosis), PE (pulmonary embolism)

VC->Rt atrium->Rt vent->LU