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75 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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general etiology of chromosomal problems is?
clastogens
chromosomal problems associated with number
aneuploidy
chromosomal problems associated with structure
translocation
aneuploidy is caused by
nondisjunction
nondisjunction results in what
monosomy or polysomy
two things
example of monosomy
turner's syndrome
example of polysomy
trisomy 21, aka down's
example of translocation
Philadelphia chromosome
Philadelphia chromosome
gene that makes WBCs is fused and malfunctions. leads to CML
single-gene disorders
punnett squares
autosomal recessive
sickle cell. HAS: ss
NOT: Ss/ SS
autosomal dominant
PKD. HAS: Pp/ PP
NOT: pp
sex-linked
on the X chromosome only. hemophilia. HAS: XhY
NOT: XhXH
normal metabolic processes
eating->carb breakdown-> glucose-> insulin
eating, then what?
manifestations
signs and symptoms
etiology
cause of disease
morbidity
the degree of being diseased
comorbidity
two or more coexisting medical conditions
mortality
usual death rate of a disease
sequela
complications, "outcome"
fulminating
rapid, sudden, and/or severe
exacerbations
when S & S become more severe
iatrogenic
problem occurs due to medical treatment
precipitating factor
a condition or event that triggers a pathologic event or disorder
congenital
any abnormality that is present at birth
teratogenic
anything that interferes with normal prenatal development
nondisjunction
distribution problem
monosomy
too few
ischemia
not enough O2
too much glucose is stored into ______ and it is called ________
glycogen

glycogenesis
glucagon does what? this process is called what?
breaks down glycogen

glycogenolysis
what is gluconeogenesis
when glycagon reserves are used up, fats and proteins are used
sequela of problems with prolonged use of gluconeogenesis
ketones
sequela of hypoxia
not enough ATP and too much pyruvic acid
metabolic acidosis
low pH, low HCO3, compensation by lungs by hyperventilating
respiratory acidosis
low pH, normal HCO3, compensation by kidneys
what happens when cations are reduced in a cell?
hyperpolarized
sluggishness
what happens when more cations go into a cell?
positive state
hypopolarized
muscle spasm and twitching
Chvostek's
compartments and what changes first
plasma space-> fluid shift-> interstitial space-> intracellular space
normal serum osmolality
280-295
water loss =
higher concentration of solutes
hypersolute
RAAS
hyposolute
natriuretic system
hyperosmolar plasma space
fluid sucked in by interstitial space, then cells
dehydration
hypoosmolar plasma space
edema
fluid sucked in by interstitial space
etiology
cause of disease
morbidity
the degree of being diseased
comorbidity
two or more coexisting medical conditions
mortality
usual death rate of a disease
sequela
complications, "outcome"
fulminating
rapid, sudden, and/or severe
exacerbations
when S & S become more severe
iatrogenic
problem occurs due to medical treatment
precipitating factor
a condition or event that triggers a pathologic event or disorder
congenital
any abnormality that is present at birth
teratogenic
anything that interferes with normal prenatal development
nondisjunction
distribution problem
monosomy
too few
ischemia
not enough O2
too much glucose is stored into ______ and it is called ________
glycogen

glycogenesis
normal cell death
apoptosis
abnormal/pathological cell death
necrosis
swelling of cells
oncosis
free radical is in a highly, reactive ____ state
oxidized
superoxide
a type of ROS (reactive oxygen species)
how does the body counteract free radicals?
by producing special enzymes such as superoxide dismutase
using vitamins C and E as reducing agents
-oma
benign
decubitus
bed sore
atrophy
decrease or shrinkage in cellular size
hypertrophy
increase in size of cells and organ
hyperplasia
increase in number of cells resulting from increased rate of cell division
metaplasia
reversible replacement of one mature cell by another type of mature cell
dysplasia
abnormal changes in size, shape, and organization of mature cells due to persistent, severe cell injury or irritation

"pre-cancer"
also, another term for it
another name for tumor
neoplasm
TNM
T= size of tumor
N= extent of spread to lymph nodes
M= distant metastasis