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49 Cards in this Set

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What is the largest organ in the body?
Integumentary
What % of body weight is the skin?
16%
What seperates the epidermis & inner dermis?
Basement membrane
What is a rash?
Temporary eruption of the skin.
What is a lesion?
Loss of normal tissue continuity due to traumatic or pathologic injury.
Can a rash have a lesion?
Yes
What 2 types can eczema be classified into?
Atopic
Nummular
What is Eczema?
A common name for chronic dermatitis.
What is Nummular Eczema
Papular or vesicular lesions that can become infected by bacteria.
What is Atopic Eczema?
Allergic , family hx of asthma or allergies, usually peds.
Explain the manifestations of Infantile atopic eczema;
Lesions begin in the cheeks & move down, usually sparing the diaper area.
Lesions start as vesicles & can progress onto oozing & crustations.
Explain the manifestations of Adult atopic eczema;
Puritus, dry skin, scratching leads to excoriation, lichenification & sometimes scarring.
Hypo or Hyperpigmented color on the antecubital & popliteal areas.
Alopecia may be accompanied by cicatrical changes, what does that mean?
Loss of hair w/scarring, this would be permanent hair loss.
What is Anagen?
The growth phase of a hair folicle.
What is Telogen?
The resting phase of a hair folicle.
What are some causes of Alopecia?
Cancer meds, Chemotherapy, Certain drugs, Symptoms of systemic dz (SLE, syphilis, lasa fever), hormonal imbalances.
What is alopecia medicamentosa?
Loss of hair as a result of medical treatment.
What is Lassa fever?
A potentially lethal viral illness marked by hemorrhage, extreme muscle pain, and in some cases shock. It is contracted solely in Africa. (One of the sx is alopecia.)
Alopecia/Syphillis;
Alopecia ia a common manifestation in the secondary stage of syphillis.
Alopecia w/SLE?
Scarring alopecia is induced by DLE.
Alopecia etiology w/SLE;
During catabolic events of SLE, the normal growing phase of hair bulbs evolve prematurely into a resting phase, defective hair shafts may also be produced breaking off close to the scalp.(facial & body hair may also be affected)
What is mucocutaneous?
Concerning mucous membrane and the skin.
What is catabolic illness?
Rapid weight loss with loss of body fat and muscle mass that frequently accompanies short-term, self-limiting conditions such as infection or injury. This condition may be associated with diabetic ketoacidosis, multiple organ system failure, and chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer.
What is catabolic force?
Energy produced by metabolism of food.
Male pattern alopecia etiology;
Begins in the 20's-30's w/loss from the vertex & frontoparietal regions. Genetically predisposed response to androgens(sensitive & insensitive)
Male pattern alopecia, androgen sensitive;
Androgen sensitive follicles are distributed mainly on top of the scalp, & are transformed into vellus folicles.
Male pattern alopecia, androgen insensitive;
Androgen insensitive folicles are on the sides & the back.
Female pattern alopecia etiology;
Etiology unknown, believed to be a combination of genetic factors & increased hair folicle response to androgens. Folicles produce finer & lighter terminal hairs, until hair production ceases w/ the lengthening of the anagen phase & shortening of the telogen phase.
What is Areate alopecia?
A microscopic inflammatory, usually reversible patchy hair loss. Occurs in sharply deformed areas of beard & scalp.
What is DHEA?
(levels are elevated in many women w/alopecia)Dehydroepiandrosterone, a androgenic substance, C19H28O2, present in urine. It has about one fifth the potency of androsterone.
What is hirsutism?
Condition characterized by the excessive growth of hair or the presence of hair in unusual places, esp. in women.
What is the cause of hirsutism?
Abnormalities of androgen production or metabolism, or it may be a side effect of medication or hormonal therapies or adrenal or ovarian tumor.
What is adrenocorticotropic hormone?
A hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary that controls the development and functioning of the adrenal cortex, including its secretion of glucocorticoids and androgens.
What is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)?
(Stein-Leventhal syndrome) Chronic anovulation in the setting of obesity, hyperinsulinemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, lipid abnormalities, hirsutism, infertility, and ovarian cysts.
What is congenital adrenal hyperplasia?
Production of cortisol, aldosterone, or both are impaired because of an autosomal recessive genetic defect in one of the adrenal enzymes involved in synthesizing adrenal steroid hormones from cholesterol.
What are the manisfestations of polycystic ovary syndrome & congenital adrenal hyperplasia?
Virilization
What is virilization?
Masculine secondary sex changes in a woman. Included would be voice change, development of male-type baldness, clitoral enlargement, and increased growth of facial and body hair.
Hirsutism dx/check for?
Polycystic ovaries
Adrenal tumors
Adrenal hyperplasia
Hirsutism management?
If no hormonal pathology;
Oral Contraceptives, Glucocortidoids, Cimetidine, Finasteride, Cosmetic hair removal
What is Paronychia?
Bacterial infection of the cuticle.
What is Onychomycosis?
(tinea unguium) A dermatophyte infection of the nails.
What is the process of Chronic Paronychia?
Gradual development w/tenderness & swelling around the proximal or lateral nail folds, space between the proximal nail fold & nail plate is where bacteria grows, as infection progresses the nail may lift away from the bed, proximal nail fold may contain pus, nail plate usually not affected.
Tx of Paronychia?
Keep hands dry.
Applying topical thymol.
What is the process of Onychomycosis?
(Tinea Ungulum) Caused by combo of bacteria & fungi (candida), begins at the tip of the nail & appears opaque, white or silvery, then turns yellow or brown & gradually thickens & cracks as infection spreads to nail plate.(is rare in immunocompromised hosts)
Superficial white onychomycosis;
Presents as one or several chalky white spots on the surface of the nail & is the only type of onychomycosis that responds to topical antifungal therapy.
What is Allergic & Irritant Contact Dermatitis?
After the irritant or allergen initially contacts the skin a reaction occurs, usualy manifestations include erythema, exudates, scaling & pruritus.
Allergic Contact Dermatitis Etiology;
A cell-mediated response or delayed hypersensitivity reaction occurs. The allergen binds w/a protein to form an antigenic molecule.
When does sensitization occur w/allergic contact dermatitis?
On the first exposure & manifestations occur on re-exposure.
Pathophysiology & manifestations of guttae psoriasis;
Common in children & young adults, brought on by UR strep infection, responds to UVB phototherapy, recurrence is is common w/UR strep infection.