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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Injurious stimuli include;
Chemical agents, free radicals, hypoxia, infectious agents, physical & mechanical factors, immunologic reactions, genetic factors & nutritional imbalances.
What is reperfusion injury?
p cells suffer from lack of O2 & are damaged the restoration of O2 can cause further membrane damage by the generation of high reactive O2 intermediates, including hydroxyl radical, superoxide & hydrogen peroxide.
What can reduce the amount of damage caused by reperfusion injury?
Expecially superoxide dismutase (SOD) beta-carotene & vitamin E.
4 intracellular systems are:
1.Cell membrane-regulates what comes in & goes out.
2.Aerobic respiration-O2 & ATP
3.Enzymatic & structural protein synthesis
4.Preservation of the integrity of the genetic apparatus of the cell
Why do free radicals cause cellular injury?
They have an unpaired electron. This makes the molecule unstable. To stabilize itself, the molecule gives up an electron to another molecule or steals one. It forms injurious chemical bonds w/proteins, lipids, & carbohydrates & nucleic acids.
What is Coagulative Necrosis?
Commonly follows interruption of blood supply to any organ(except brain)
Generally the kidneys, heart, or adrenal glands.
Coagulation is caused by protein denaturation, which causes the protein albumin to change from a gelatinous, transparent state to a firm, opaque state.
What is Fat Necrosis?
Lipase breaks down intracellular triglycerides into free fatty acids.
Free fatty acids + sodium magnesium & calcium produce soap.
Tissue becomes opaque and chalky white.
During the vascular response of inflammation there is a release of chemical mediators by:
Mast cells
During the vascular response of inflammation immediate vasoconstriction is caused by:
Nerve reflexes
What is margination?
Adherence of leukocytes to blood vessels during the first stages of inflammation.
What is pavementing?
(coblestone appearence) Leukocytes adhere to the capillary lining.
What is Immigration?
Passage of leukocytes through the capillaries to the damaged tissue.
What is Chemotaxis?
Directional movement of leukocytes to the injured area.
During the vascular response of inflammation what occurs regarding capillary permeability?
Plasma protein & fluid shift into interstitial the space (causing an accumulition of fluid). Leading to a dilution of toxic materials at the site of injury. Globulin serves as antibodies. Fibrinogen localizes the injurious agent (surrounds damaged tissue, to aid in phagocytosis) then Cellular response takes place.
What is cellular response?
Process during which leukocytes are attracted to the area of inlammation as damaged cells release their contents.
In response to inflammation what do neutrophils do?
They are the 1st leukocytes to arrive at the inflamed site. They ingest bacteria, dead cells, & cellular debris then die & are removed as pus through the epithelium or the lymphatic system.
In response to inflammation what do basophils do?
Release histimine, which causes constriction of vascular smooth muscles, dilation of capillaries & retraction of endothelial cells linging the capillaries, which increases vascular permeability.
In response to inflammation what do esinophils do?
Allergic responses.
(esinophils help to control the inflammatory response or act directly against parasites)
In response to inflammation what do T lymphocytes do?
They are active in cell-mediated immunity.
In response to inflammation what do B lymphocytes do?
Produce antibodies.
In response to inflammation what do Monocytes & macrophages do?
They perform many of the same functions as neutrophils (phagocytosis) but for a longer time & later in the inflammatory response.
What are mast cells?
A large tissue cell which is essential for inflammatory reactions. They are covered with IgE molecules, which bind with foreign antigens and stimulate degranulation, releasing such mediators as histamine, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and proteinases from densely packed granules within the cytoplasm.
What immunologic processes contribute to aging?
A decrease in T-cell function & the production of abnormal monoclonal antibodies.
What is the free radical theory?
A increased # of unstable free radicals produce effects harmful to biologic systems.
Cellular Death
Cross-link theory
strong chemical bonding between organic molecules in the body causes increased stiffness, chemical insolubility & insolubility of connective tissue and DNA.