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84 Cards in this Set

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Cells carry out 7 functions, what are they?
Movement
Conductivity
Metabolic absportion
Secretion
Excretion
Respiration
Communication
What is the nucleolus and what goes on there?
Densely stained structure int he nucleus where ribosome subunits are assembled
What are histones? Where are they?
Main proteins of chromatin, ocated in the nucleus. Spools around which DNA can wind. Involved in gene regulation, DNA repair, and chromosome condensation (mitosis).
What are ribosomes? Where are they?
RNA protein complexes made in the nucleolus and secreted into the cytoplasm and often attach to the ER. They provide sites for cellular protein synthesis.
What does the ER do?
It is a network of cisternae that makes and transports protein and lipid components of hte cells organelles.
What does the smooth ER do?
It has enzymes that help make steriod hormones
What is the Golgi complex? What does it do?
It is a netowrk of flat membranes often near the nucleus of the cell.
Proteins from ER are packaged into secretory vessels which collect in the Glogi cisternae.
They break off and move to their different destinations.
How about those lysosomes?
These are sacklike things that originate from the Golgi complex and contain many digestive enzymes (hydrolases) that can digest cellualr consituients to their most basic forms.
What do hydrolases do?
They are digestive enzymes foundin lysosomes and htey catalyze bonds in proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and carbs.
What are 2 lysosome storage diseases?
Tay-Sachs and Pompe disease.
How do lysosomes help kep the body safe?
Lysosomes are able to endocytose extracellular substances and digest the (harmful) materials. By continually pumping H+ into their interiors, they keep a very low pH (lower when they are "active" or secondary).
Autophagy?
In living cells, cellular debris is encapsulated within a vesicle that reacts witha lysosome to complete its degredateion
Autodigestion?
Lysosomes digest the debris left from dying cells.
What are peroxisomes?
Bidies containing oxidative enzymes like catalase and urate oxidase.
Major site of O2 utilization
They have enzmes that use O to remove H from substrates like H2O2 --> 2H2O.
Where are cristae located?
Mitochondria
The _________ contains enzymes of the respiratory e- transport chain that are essential for......
Innrlayer of mitochondria....essential for oxidative phosphorylation that makes most of the cells' ATP
All intermediary metabolism occurs in the __________.
Cytoplasm
What do vaults do?
Transport messenger RNA from nucleus to cytoplasmic ribosomes.
What are microtubules?
Small rigid tubes made of proteins that support and move organelles around the cytoplasm and help some cells move around. They become more numerous when cell is dividing
The outer surface of hte plasma membrane is dimpled with cave like indentations known as ___________.
Caveolae
The basic component of a plasma membrane is a ____________.
Lipid bilayer
The lipid bylayer is _______ to most water soluable molecules.
impermeable
Two substances can easily diffuse through the lipid bilayer, they are:
O2 and CO2
Receptors for drugs, antigens, and hormones are found where?
On the plasma membrane, in the cytoplasm, and in the nucleus.
The cellular matrix is made of 3 groups of macro molecules, what are they?
1. Fibrous structural proteins like collagen and elastin
2. Adhesive glycoproteins like fibronectin
3. Poteoglycans and hyaluronic acid.
The extracellular matrix is secreted by __________ and known collectively as _____________.
Fibroblasts....connective tissue.
Cell junctions have 2 functions:
1. Hold cells togethre
2. Allow small molecules to move from cell to cell.
Three types of cell jxns and their fxns are:
Desmosomes - hold cells together by forming bands or belts.
Tight junctions act as barriers to diffusion and prevent movement of substances through transport proteins and prevent leackage of molecules between membranes of other cells
Gap jxns are communication tunnels that allow ions and molecules to pass from cell to cell.
_________ jxns coordinate activities of adjecent cells and are particularly important to____ and ___ cells.
GAP...important in muscle cells and neural cells
One important immune response cells have is _____. In which a cell is able to seal itself off in response to _____________.
Gating, in resposne to increased cytoplasmic calcium which causes decreased permeability.
What are the 4 major steps invovled with signal transduction?
1. Physically transfering hte signal from one part of cell to another
2. Amplification of the signal
3. Distribution of the signal
4. Modulation of the signal by other interfering factors
How are first messenter responses different from second messenger responses?
First messenger responses soliit the opening or closing of channels in the membrane and transferring the signal to an intracellular messenger. Second messengers trigger a cascade of events within the cell.
How do channels open so that messengers can communicate?
Channels can bind a ligand at a specific membrane receptor
Changes in the electrical current in the membrane (Na/K)
Streching of the channel.
What are the two major second messenger pathways?
cAMP, and Ca++
In the cAMP cycle, the enzyme ________ is activated by _______.
adenylyl cyclase....g protein.
If Ca++ is the second messenger, _____leads to the activation of the enzyme _______.
G protein...phospholipase C.
Energy using processes of metabolism are calle _________.
Anabolic
Energy releasing processes are called _______________.
Catabolic.
Energy is stored by molecules of ____, _____, and _____, which, when catabolized, transfers energy to ______.
Carbohydrate, lipid, protein ....ATP
There are 3 phases to catabolism of food. Describe phase 1
Phase 1: digestion of macromolecules (proteins, polysaccharaides and fats) to amino acids, simple sugars and fatty acids).
Describe phase 2 of catabolism:
Phase 2: Small molecules enter the cells. Sugars-->pyruvate(via glycolysis yielding ATP)-->mitochondria---> Acetyl CoA. ACoA releases E when hydrolized (like ATP).
What is oxidation?
Transfer of a pair of electrons, involved in glycolysis in which 1 glucose yields 6 ATPs.
Describe phase 3 of catabolism:
Phase 3: Acetyl group of Acetyl CoA is degradeded to CO2 and H2O giving ATP. The phase begins wth Krebs cycle and ends with oxidative phosphorylation.
What is oxidative phosphorylation anyway? Where?
It occurs in the mitochondria and is the mechanism by which energy from CHO, Fats and proteins is transferred to ATP.
E- are removed with use of coenzyme (NAD)-->NADH and the e- taken to E- tx chain at mitochondria. Cytochromes accept pairs of e- and pass them on to O2 and ATP is formed.
The oxidative phosphorylation process requires what? Example?
Coenzymes (nonpritein carrier molecules) like NAD.
What happens to pyruvate, the product of glycolysis?
With O2, it is oxidized to Acetyl CoA and goes into the krebs cycle. Without O2 it becomes lactic acid.
Where does glycolysis occur in the cell?
Cytoplasm
Water and small uncharged molecules can move through pasma bilayer pores via.... driven by....
passive transport. Driven by osmosis, hydrostatic presure and difusion.
What is active transport
Movement of larger molecuels into the cell that requires E input.
Small parttcles of dissolved substances are called...
solutes
Passive transport occurrs via (3):
Diffusion, filtration, and osmosis.
the rate of diffusion of a substance depends on: (2)
size of substance and lipid soulbility (hydrophobic crosses membrane more easily)
Filtration depends on what?
hydrostatic pressure - the mechanical force of water pushing against cellular membranes
Osmosis is...It's related to...
the movement of water from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration.
It is related to hydrstaic pressure and solute concentration but NOT particle size or weight.
For every ATP molecule used for Na/K active transport, __Na move ___ and ___K move____.
3 Na out, and 1K move in.
Pinocytosis referrs to_____.
Cell drinking
Phagocytosis referrs to
Cell eating
What do the caveolae do?
They are cholestrol rich areas where protein caveolin are involved in endocytosis, cholesterol regulation, and cell communication.
This is called POTOCYTOSIS!
The resting membrane potential is more permeable to _____ than _____.
K than Na
In order for an action potential to fire, the cell ha to depolarize by __millivolts
15-20
Mitosis is...
Nuclear division occurs during M phase
Cytokinesis is...
division of the cytoplasm occurrs during Mphase
Most work preparing for divison occurs during the phase called
interphase
The rest of the cycle (aside from interphase) is called....and is made of stages...
M phase. Stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase (PMAT)
During _____ phase of cell divsion, the cell makes DNA, RNA, proteins, lipids, aond each pair of chromosmes copy themselves.
Interphase
What are the 4 phases of cell divison in order.
G1
S
G2
M
What happens during prophase?
Beginning of M phase, first appearance of pchromosomes--->divide to form chromatids attached by centromere. Nuclear membrane disappears and spindle fibers (microtubules) appear in cytoplasm
What happens during metaphase?
The spindle fibers cause chromatids to align in the center of the spindle.
Anaphase...what happens?
begins when cetromers spilt and chromatids are pulled apart. 2 pairs of 46 chomosomes are at each end of the cell.
Telophase...
Final stage, new nuclear membran is formed around each group of 46 chromosomes and the spindles disappear. Chromosomes uncoil. Cytokinesis occurrs.
The resting state of a cell before it divides is....
G1.
When in the cell cycle is DNA synthesized?
S part of interphase.
At what point does RNA and protein synthesis occur?
G2
Tissue formation is dependent on ________.
Founder cells.
What are the components of interphase and what happens during each phase?
G1: Cell grows
S: Genome replication
G2: prepares for diviion
M phase is made of what two main processes and 4 subprocesses?
Mitosis (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, atelophase) and cytokineseis
What happens during prophase?
First appearance of ochromosomes as chromatids. Nuclear membrane disappears, spindle fibers appear
What happens during metaphase?
Spindle fibers pull Centromeres of chromosomes nad they line up in the middle of the cell
What happens during anaphase?
Centromeres split and chromatids pull apart (anaphase/apart!)
What happens during telophase?
New nuclear membrane is formed around each group of 46 chromosomes. Cytokinesis occurrs.
What does cyclin do?
During cell division this growth factor interacts with cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) and says "ok, i'm here, let's go".
List the types of epithelial tissue:
simple, stratified, squamous, cuboidal, comlumnar, pseudostratified, cillia and microvilli
What are the types of connective tissue?
ground substance, fibers, loose and dense, elastic and reticular, cartiliage, bone, vascular, and adipose.
What are the types of muscle tissue?
smooth, striated, cardiac.