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14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Types of Cellular Adaptation?
* Atrophy
* Hypertrophy
* Hyperplasia
* Dysplasia
* Metaplasia

Types of Cellular Adaptation?
Atrophy - decrease in cell size
Hypertrophy - increase in cell size
Hyperplasia - increase in the number of cells
Dysplasia (atypical hyperplasia) - changes in size, shape, organization of mature cells
Metaplasia - reversible replacement of a cell by another

Types of Atrophy
Physiologic - during early development
Pathologic - other reasons, such as: decreases in workload, use, pressure, stimulation, blood supply, nutrition, etc.
What can cause Pathologic atrophy?
decreases in workload, use, pressure, stimulation, blood supply, nutrition,hormonal stimulation, and nervous simulation
Types of Hyperplasia?
Compensatory - enables some organs to regenerate
Hormonal - chiefly in estrogen-dependent organs (uterus & breast)
Pathologic - excessive hormones or growth factors
General causes of Cell Injury?
1. Hypoxia - lack of sufficient oxygen
2. Free Radicals & Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) -
3. Caustic or toxic Chemicals
4. Infectious agents
5a. Blunt force injuries
5b. Sharp force injuries
6. Inflamatory responses
7. Immune responses
8. genetic factors.
9. Insuficient nutrients.
10. Physical trauma
Categories of Cell Injury?
1. acute or chronic
2. reversible or irreversiable
3. can involve necrosis, apoptosis, accumulation, or pathologic calcification.
N double A PC
Sequence of cell death
1. decreases in ATP production.
2. failure of active transport mechanism (Na-K pumps)
3. cellular swelling
4. detachment of ribsomes from ER
5. cessation of protein sythesis.
6. mitochondrial swelling from Ca accumulation
7. vacuolization
8. leakage of digetive enzymes.
9. autodigestion of intracellular structures
10. lysis of the plasma membrane.
11. death
What is ischemia?
cessation of blood flow to into vessels that supply the cell
Some chemical agents that can cause cellular injury?
carbon monoxide
social or street drugs
What is a contusion?
bleeding into the tissue or surrounding area.
What is Anoxia?
total lack of oxygen
What is reperfusion?
additional injury caused by restoration of oxygen
name some biologically relevant free radicals
1. Superoxide O2negative
2. Hydrogen peroxide H2O2
3. Hydroxyl radicals OH-
4. Nitric Oxide NO