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25 Cards in this Set

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Irritable Bowel Syndrome
IBS results from a functional disorder of intestinal motility. The change in motility may be related to the neurologic regulatory system, infection or irritation, or a vascular or metabolic disturbancce. The peristaltic waves are affected at specific segments of the intestine and in the intensity with which they propel the fecal matter forward. There is no evidence of inflammation or tissue changes in the intestinal mucosa.
Esophageal Atresia
Failure of the esophagus to develop as a continuos tube. occurs in the 4th-5th week of gestation.
Pyloric Strenosis
Lumen becomes inflamed due to the blockage of flow from the stomach into the duodenum and edema occurs, further blocking the stomach to duodenum flow. As obstruction becomes more complete, onset of symptoms occurs. Surgical Correction is treatment of choice.
Omphalocele
Failure of the abdominal contents to return to the abdominal cavity when the abdominal wall closes.
Intussecption
One part of the intestine slips into another part located below it (like a telescope shortening) Result- the intestinal lumen becomes narrowed- causing obstruction.
Gastroenteritis
Motility disorder, due to inflammation, decreased are for absorption. Inflammtion causes increased motility. Increased Motility and decreased absorption= vomiting and/or diarrhea.
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease- GERD
Backward flow of gastric contents into esophagus. Leads to irritation of esophageal mucosa from gastric and duodenal contents. Leads to inflammatory changes within the esophagus. Chronic inflammation of the esophageal mucosa causes the esophagus to be less effective at clearing the reflux material. Leads to increased duration exposure of the mucosa to reflux.
Barrets Esophagus
After chronic mucosal irritation, the body substitues columnar epithelium for normal squamous cell epithium.
Hiatal Hernia
Protusion of a portion of the stomach above the opening in the diaphragm where the esophagus passes. Insufficient closure of the esopho-gastric opening by the lower esophageal sphincter. regurgitation of the stomach contents.
Achlasia
Motility disorder of the esophagus. Lower esophageal sphincter fails to relax with swallowing. Abnormal Peristalsis. Leads to massive dilation of lower esophagus. Decreased food passage.
Esophageal Diverticula
Herniation of esophageal mucosa and submucosa into surrounding tissue. Causing a sac-like appearance. Can occur anywhere along the esophagus.
Gastritis
inflammation of the stomach lining. Increased acid production, decreased mucosal barrier. Superficial erosion, edema, or iritation of the stomach lining= edema, hemmorrhage and erosions of stomach linig.
Peptic Ulcer Disease
Breakdown of the mucosal barrier exposes the epithelium to acid erosion. Decreased blood supply causes ischemia. All lead to erosion (ulcerations)
Perotinitis
An acute inflammation of the endothelial lining of the abdominal cavity, or peritoneum. Perforation w/ perotinitis- Ulcer penetrates structure wall; spill of content into abdominal cavity; intensity of peritonitis will be related to volume of content spilled into the abdominal cavity.
Gastric Outlet Obstruction
Compensated Phase- Early phase
Gastric emptying near normal. Increased peristaltic waves. Hypertrophy of stomach.
Decompensated Phase:
Occurs after long standing obstruction. Narrowing of the gastric outlet occurs:
Dilation and atony of the stomach, edema at the pylorus.
Corrosives- Most Common with children
Common Sources- Batteries, Household cleaners, denture cleasners, bleach, toilet bowel cleansers.

Do Not induce vomiting
Dilute toxin with water
Hydrocarbons- Most common with adults
Common Sources- Gasoline, kerosine, furniture polish, lighter fluid, paint thinner.

Do Not induce vomiting
Decomtaminate skin by removing clothing and cleansing skin.
Acetaminophen- can be given too much accidentally
Common Sources- Tylenol Products, Cold medicines containing acetaminophen

Induce vomiting, gastric lavage, NAC: a concentrated form of mucomist. Mucomist is an antidote for acetaminophen. Acetaminophen is toxic to the liver. NAC binds with acetaminophen- preventing absorption and protecting the liver.
Salicylate
Common Sources- Aspirin, Cold medicines containing Salicylic acid.

Induce vomiting, administer sodium bicarbonate, administer fluid, administer vitamin K.
Mercury
Common Sources- Broken thermometer, shemicals, clothing of a care giver who works in a mercury enriched environment.

Same treatment as Lead poisoning.
Iron- Children under 2 yoa shouldn't have iron supplements.
Common Sources- Vitamin supplements

Induce vomiting, IV fluids, Sodium Bicarb., chelation therapy.
Hemataemasis
Blood in Vomit- Bright red bleeding. No contact with digestive products of the stomach. Very important!!, means pt is bleeding currently and needs to be attended to immediatly.
Coffee Ground Emesis
Dark and grainy. Has been in stomach for long time. Hemoglobin digested by stomach.
Melena
Indicates slow bleed, black and tarry stools, foul smelling, blood digested by stomach
Occult bleeding
Small amounts of bleeding, not visible but picked up by testing
Gastro-occult=emesis
Hemo-occult= stool