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83 Cards in this Set

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Which is a true statement about atrophy

a) it is a limited process
b) decrease in number of cells
c) only possible in cells that undergo mitosis
d) decrease in cell size
decrease in cell size = atrophy

ltd = hypertrophy
mitosis = hyperplasia
what is not true about Hypertrophy

a) increase in cell number
b) it is a limited process
c) occurs as a normal physiologic response
d) all are true
increase in cell number= hyperplasia

Hypertrophy- increase in cell size
list the physiologic causes for Hyperplasia
hormonal- ex: increase endometrial lining before menses
compensatory- ex: remove part of LV- cells regenerate tissue
wound healing
T/F

Hyperplasia is a controlled process and will occur only if stimulus is present
True- once stimulus is removed hyperplasia ceases
list the causes of Hypertrophy
Physiologic response
Pathologic adaptive
Pathologic compensatory
list the causes of Atrophy
disease
denervation (ex stroke)
lack endocrine stimulation (ex menopause)
decreased nutrition
ischemia
T/F

atrophy cannot be reversed
F- it is adaptive and reversible
_____ related to atrophy of the HT and brain
Brown Atrophy
conversion of one adult cell type to another is ______
metaplasia
what is the major difference between metaplasia and dysplasia?
metaplasia- new cells all look exactly alike

dysplasia- cells of particular tissue all look different
This can be caused by chronic irritation or inflammation
metaplasia - ex GERD
dysplasia - Barretts Espohagus
T/F

dysplasia is a permanent change to cell type
False

potentially reversible once cause has been removed
what is true about anaplasia

a) potentially reversible
b) cancer cells
c) GERD
d) a,c
e) All
Cancer
list the causes of cell injury
physical
radiation
chemical
biologic
nutritional imbalance
list the types of physical agents that can cause cell injury
mechanical
thermal
electrical
incorrect statement

a) AC current is most damaging
b) hi voltage and intensity will cause greater damage to cells
c) Nerve tissue is the most resistant to conduction
d) a, b are false
e) c, d are false
Nerve = least resistant
Bone = most resistant

increase resistance increase heat
T/F

Bone will generate more heat than muscle when exposed to electrical current
true- bone can char even with sl burn on exterior bc it is the most resistant to current and conducts the most heat
The following are true about Ionizing Radiation except

a) more susceptible is tissue w hi mitotic rate
b) causes vibration of atoms
c) vasodilation is immediate response
d) gives rise to thermal energy
e) a,c not true
f) b,d not true
atom vibration + thermal energy = non-ionizing radiation
T/F

Cell injury due to radiation is independent of the dosage
F- ionizing radiation= dose dependent
Chelating agents are used to treat

a) Lead poisoning
b) Bacterial invasion
c) Ischemia
d) none
Lead poisoning
true statement about Lead

a) absorbed thru LU, GI
b) crosses placenta
c) stored in bones
d) disrupts CNS functioning
ALL are true
the following xu will increase lead absorption except

a) Potassium
b) Calcium
c) Iron
d) Zinc
K+
Which is not a mechanism behind lead poisoning

a) denaturing protein
b) bind to mRNA
c) derange second msngrs in CNS
d) all are mechanisms
bind to tRNA
What is not true about lead
a) targets white blood cells
b) encephalopathy
c) stored in KD
d) a,b
e) a,c
targets RBCs CNS, GI, KD
stored in Bones, eliminated by KD

(also causes demyelination and encephalopathy)
List the manifestations of Lead poisoning
demyelination- numb, weakness
encephalopathy- brain damage, memory
lead colic- ab pain
lead line on gingival margin
List the mechanism of cellular injury
Free Radical
Hypoxia/Ischemia
Ca Imbalance
define Free Radical
atom with 1 or more unpaired electrons in outer orbit -> unstable
list the sources of Free Radicals
Metabolic Pathways
Inflammatory process
Carbon Monoxide/Tobacco
organic solvents
hyperoxic environ
pesticide
radiation
drugs
T/F

Free radicals can arise breathing too much oxygen
T
What is true about Free Radicals

a) Impairs removal of toxic metabolic bi-products
b) Inactivate Enzymes
c) Impair Ca homeostasis
d) a, b
e) b,c
Inactivates Enzymes
also:
damages cell membranes
damages nucleic acids

(impaired removal = ischemia)
(impaired Ca homeostasis = Hypoxia/Ischemia)
List the anti-oxidants used for tx of free radicals
Vit E, C
Beta Carotene
T/F

Ischemia is limited to the venous system
F-

Arterial system- bc blockage causes impaired removal of waste products
what is the difference between Hypoxia and Ischemia
hypoxia- lo O2 supply to cells/tissues

ischemia- impaired O2 delivery, and removal of metab wastes
Which is not a cause for ischemia

a) anemia
b) lo O2 air pressure
c) respiratory disease
d) none cause ischemia
none- all causes for hypoxia - including edema, ischemia, and inability of cells to use O2

ischemia cause by blockage of blood flow, stroke, embolus
List the causes of hypoxia
Lo O2 air pressure
respiratory disease
ischemia
anemia
edema
inability of cells to use O2
List causes of Ischemia
blockage of blood flow
stroke
embolus
T/F

Hypoxia has a general effect on the body
True

can be reversible or irreversible
What is not true about ischemia

a) has a general affect on the body
b) increases cellular enzymes in blood
c) related to blockage of arterial system
d) all are true
has a Local effect on body
what is not a mechanism of Hypoxia

a) impaired generation of ATP
b) increased cellular permeability
c) lactic acid accumulation
d) anaerobic metabolism
lactic acid accumulation = ischemia
list the common mechanism of Hypoxia and Ischemia
interrupted O2 metab and ATP prdctn
impaired Na/K pump causes cell swelling
increased cell permeability
use anaerobic pathway
impaired Ca homeostasis
manifestation of Hypoxia/Ischemia
a) Alzheimers
b) programmed destruction of cells
c) increased enzymes in blood
d) none
increased enzymes in blood

programmed cell death & alzheimers = manifestation of Apoptosis
list the causes of Ca imbalance
hypoxia
ischemia
toxin
What is the mechanism of a Ca imbalance
impaired Ca/Mg pump causes Ca to flow into cell
Ca released from Mitochondria and ER
increased cellular [Ca] causes enzyme activation (phospholipase, protease, ATPase, Endonuclease)
_____ eliminates cells to provide space for needed cell replacement
apoptosis
list manifestations of apoptosis
programmed destruction of cell
hormone dependent involution of tissue
cytotoxic T cell function
cell injury
neurovegitative disorders - alzheimers, parkinsons, ALS
Cancer- oncogenes suppress apoptosis
T/F

Oncogenes stimulates unwanted apoptosis
F

oncogenes suppress apoptosis
Which is not a manifestation of Apoptosis

a) Alzheimers
b) cytotoxic T Cell function
c) Death of RBCs
d) all are manifestation
All are manifestation
type of necrosis where catalytic enzymes of death cells are not destroyed

a) liquefaction
b) coagulation
c) caseous
d) all
Liquefaction
type of necrosis that occurs when acidosis denatures the enzymes

a) liquefaction
b) coagulation
c) caseous
d) all
coagulation
form of immune mechanism

a) apoptosis
b) caseous necrosis
c) dry gangrene
d) Free Radical
caseous necrosis - pasty texture holds bacteria/dead cells inside
List the characteristics of necrosis
unregulated enzyme digestion of cell components
loss of cell membrane
increased release of death enzymes into cell
inflammation
interference of cell replacement/tissue regeneration
T/F

Necrosis does not interfere with tissue replacement
F- scar tissue interferes with cell replacement/tissue regeneratoin
inflammation is a characteristic of

a) apoptosis
b) ischemia
c) necrosis
d) all
necrosis

(other characteristics: unregulated enzymatic digestion of cell, loss cell membrane integrity, interference with cell replacement/regeneration)
_____ is death of considerable mass of tissue
Gangrene
T/F

Wet gangrene is confined to the exremeities
F- Dry gangrene

wet gangrene can affect internal organs
Incorrect statement

a) dry gangrene is related to impaired venous return
b) wet gangrene is result of impaired arterial blood supply
c) gas gangrene results from infection
d) all are true
dry gangrene- impaired arterial blood supply

wet gangrene- impaired venous return
which is related to dry gangrene

a) mild general symptoms
b) line of demarcation
c) coagulation necrosis
d) all
all
(also impaired arterial blood supply)
T/F

Dry gangrene is more severe than wet gangrene
F
dry= mild
wet= severe
gas= fatal
T/F

dry gangrene spreads slowly while wet gangrene spreads rapidly
true
which form of gangrene is most common in diabetics

list the manifestations
Dry
dry/wrinkled/dark skin
slow spread
clear line of demarcation
mild general symptoms
impaired arterial blood supply
coagulation necrosis
which from of gangrene is most common with varicose veins

list the manifestations
wet-

moist/black/cold/tense skin
no line of demarcation
foul smell
sever general symptoms
internal organs and extremities
impaired venous return/congestion
liquefaction necrosis
T/F

Gangrene is the cell death of an organ or tissue still part of a living person
F
definition of necrosis

Gangrene= death/necrosis of a considerable mass of tissue
List the types of necrosis
liquefaction- enzymatic malfnctn
coagulation- acidosis
caseous- immune
what is the primary objective of wound healing?

a) stimulate WBC production to prevent infection
b) fill in gap of tissue destruction
c) restore structural continuity
d) all
fill in gap
restore structural continuity
T/F

scar tissue is the replacement of an injured cell of the same parenchymal type
F

regeneration
___ cells divide and replicate throughout lifetime

a) labile
b) stable
c) permanent
d) all
labile
the following cell type is capable of regeneration

a) labile
b) stable
c) permanent
d) all are capable
labile- can always divide/replicate
stable- stop dividing when growth ceases but capable of regeneration when necessary as long as stromal framework exists
T/F

permanent cells stop dividing when growth ceases
F

permanent cells cannot undergo mitosis

stable cells stop dividing when growth ceases but capable of regeneration when necessary as long as stromal framework exists
T/F

HT muscle cells cannot undergo mitosis
T- permanent type cells
list the phases of wound healing
inflammatory
proliferative
remodeling
what is the difference between primary and secondary intention wound healing
primary- minimal scar/infxn, ex stitches

secondary- natural healing- larger scar, increase chance of infection
why is connective tissue repair mechanism important
allows replacement of permanent cells that do not regenerate by creating scar tissue
list the phases of wound healing
inflammatory
proliferative
remodeling
the main cell type in inflammatory stage of wound healing

a) macrophage
b) fibroblast
c) collagen
d) antibodies
macrophage
main cell type used during proliferative phase of wound healing

a) macrophage
b) fibroblast
c) collagen
d) antibodies
fibroblast
t/f

during the remodeling stage the wound space is filled with new tissue
F- that is proliferative phase- forms granular tissue via fibroblasts- begins after 2nd day of injury and lasts for 3 weeks

remodeling = simultaneous synth/destruction of collagen
this phase of wound healing causes dilation of capillaries
inflammatory - begins at time of injury
the remodeling phase lasts

a) days
b) weeks
c) months
months- years
The following factor is not involved with the formation of collagen

a) Vit A
b) Vit C
c) Vit K
d) Oxygen
Vit K- stops bleeding/prevents hematoma
List the factors that affect wound healing
malnutrition
blood flow/O2
impaired inflammatory/immune response
infection/sound separation/foreign body
age
which factor prolongs the inflammatory response and slows healing

a) protein xu
b) O2 xu
c) infection
d) a,c
e) b,c
protein xu
infection

(O2 xu increases risk of infection because waste removal is impaired)
T/F- children have a greater capacity to repair wounds faster than adults
T- bc faster metabolism - BUT younger kids have a weaker immune system than adults
list the factors that can impair the immune response to a wound
phagocytic disorder
diabetes
corticosteroid therapy