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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hemorrhage into the mammilary bodies & dorsal medial gray matter around the cerebral aquaducts
Wernicke-Korsakoff Synd
Confusion, paralysis of the lateral rectus, & ataxia w/ memory loss & confabulation
Wernicke-Korsakoff Synd.
-caused by thiamine def., typically in alcoholics
Meningitis w/ inc. mononuclear cells, normal or inc. protein, and normal glucose in CSF
Acute aseptic(viral)meningitis
Neurofibrillary tangles & senile Beta-amyloid plaques in elderly px.
Alzheimer Dse.
-assoc. w/ mutations on chromosomes 21,19,14, & 1
Common neurodegenerative diseases w/ dementia
Alzheimer disease, Hungtington dse., & Pick dse.
Degeneration of the upper & lower motor neurons of the lateral & ventral corticospinal tracts
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis(ALS)
-assoc. w/ mutations of superoxide dismutase
Most common cause of cerebral embolic infarcts
Cerebral atherosclerosis
-most common location is the middle cerebral arterty
Changes in memory & behavior followed by rapid dementia w/ startle myoclonus
Creutzfeld-Jakob Dse.
-histologically characterized by spongioform change; transmission via prion protein
Rupture of middle meningeal artery bec. of skull fracture
Epidural Hematoma
-can be fatal
Most common primary intracranial neoplasm
Glioblastoma Multiforme
-as opposed to the most common intracranial neoplasm overall w/c is metastases to the brain
Pseudopalisading arrangement of malignant nuclei
Glioblastoma Multiforme
Patients present w/ involuntary kerky movements or writhing of the ext.
Huntingyon dse.
-autosomal dominant dse. assoc. w/ trinucleotide repeat expansions
Atrophy of the caudet, putamen, and globus pallidus
Huntington Dse.
-caudate atrophy leads to "bat wing" lateral ventricles
Most common cause of primary brain parenchymal hemorrhage
One of the most common intracranial tumors in children
Tumor pushes on(rather than infiltrates) adjacent parenchyma
-slow growing & often surgically resectable
Charcot triad: nystagmus, intention tremor, & scanning speech
Multiple Sclerosis
-in a gross specimen, dirty tan periventricular plaques indicate demyelination in white matter
Assoc. w/ folate def. during the initial weeks of gestation
Neural Tube Defect
-alpha-fetoprotein level is elevated in maternal serum
Multiple neurofibromas on the skin, café au lait spots, & Lisch nodules(pigmented hamartomas) on the iris
Neurofibromatosis(Type 1)(Von Recklinghausen dse.)
-autosomal dominant mutation in the
NF-1 gene
Rigid expressionless face & a pill-rolling tremor
Parkinson Dse
Atrophy & gross depigmentation of the dopamine-producing cells of the substancia nigra & locus coeruleus
Parkinson Dse.
-histologically charact. by Lewy bodies w/c are intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic inclusions w/ in neurons
Spinal tap w/ numerous leukocytes, dec. glucose & inc. protein
Bacterial(Pyogenic) Meningitis
Most common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage
Rupture of a berry aneurysm
-most common location of berry aneurysms is the Circle of Willis
Intracranial Tumor presenting w/ tinnitus & hearing loss
Schwannoma(acoustic neuroma)
-involves CN VII & VIII at the cerebellopontine angle
"Worst headache of my life", vomiting, loss of consciousness, & blood in the CSK
Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Intracranial hemorrhage due to disruption of the bridging veins
Subdural hemorrhage
Loss of pain & temperature sensation in the upper ext.
Weakness, parasthesia, & "pins-and-needles" feeling
Vit. B12 Def.
-affects the lateral & post. columns
Cerebrovascular dse. charact. by liquefactive necrosis leading to cyst form. due to arterial occlusion from thrombosis(due to atherosclerosis) or embolism(from cardiac mural thrombi, vegetations of infected endocarditic valves,clumps of tumor cells,bubbles of air,droplets of fat)
-embolism is much less common thrombosis
Denotes inc. vol. of CSF w/ in the cranial cavity;assoc. w/ enlargement of the skull;often due to obstruction to CSF flow by different mech.(congenital malform.,inflam.,tumors) or by overproduction of CSF by choroid plexus papilloma
-types:internal(inc. CSF w/ in the vent.),external(inc. CSF w/ in the subarachnoid space),communicating(free flow of CSF betw. the vent. & subarachnoid space),noncommunicating(obstructed flow betw. vent. & subarachnoid space)
Type of hydrocephalus w/c occurs w/o obstruction or inc. CSF production in disorders charact. by dec. cerebral mass,such as ischemic brain atrophy or advanced Alzheimer dse.
Hydrocephalus ex vacuo
A downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils & medulla through the foramen magnum charact. by presence of a thoracolumbar meningomyelocele~ pressure atrophy of displaced brain tissue~obstrusction of CSF flow~ hydrocephalus
Arnold-Chiari malformation
Congenital disorder of the CNS charact. by facial abn° & developmental defects such as microcephaly,atrial septal defect,mental & growth retardation,& other anomalies;assoc. w/ excessive maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy
Fetal Alcohol Synd.
Congenital CNS disorder charact. by seizures & mental retardation beginning in infancy w/c includes adenoma sebaceum of the skin & angiomyolipoma of the kidney
Tuberous Sclerosis Synd.
-includes autosomal dominant nodular proliferation of multinucleated atypical astrocytes forming tubers(small white nodules scattered in the cerebral cortex & periventricular areas)
Most common group of CNS disorder, ranking after heart dse. & cancer as 3rd major cause of death in the U.S
Cerebrovascular Dse.
-2 major types:Infarction(thrombosis, embolism)& Hemorrhage(intercerebral, subarachnoid)
Group of disorders charact. by failure of closure of the neural tube;assoc. w/ increased conc. of alpha-feto-protein in amniotic fluid or maternal serum & maternal folic acid def.
Neural Tube Defects
-types(Spina bifida,Spina bifida occulta,Spina bifida cystica, Meningocele,Meningomyelocele, Anencephaly)
Neural tube defect due to failure of posterior vertebral arches to close
Spina bifida
Spina bifida w/ no clinically apparent abn°;vertebral arch defect most limited to one or two vertebrae
Spina bifida occulta
Neural tube defect due to herniated membranes consisting of meninges only
Neural tube defect w/ marked diminution(sometimes absence)of fetal brain tissue;usually assoc w/ the absence of overlying skull
Group of infxn. transmitted from the mother to the fetus w/ similar clinical manifestations w/c involves the heart,skin,eye,& CNS;causes chorioretinitis;charact. by microcephaly & focal cerebral calcification
TORCH complex
-stands for TOxoplasma,Rubella, Cytomegalovirus,& Herpes simplex virus
Most common site of vascular obstruction in cerebrovascular dse. due to thrombosis & embolism resulting in contralateral paralysis as well as motor & sensory defects & aphasias
Thrombosis(carotid bifurcation & middle cerebral artery) & Embolic(middle cerebral artery)
Type of stroke caused by an obstruction of small vessels~small lesions(upon healing are recognized as lacunae,small pits)
Lacunar Strokes
-focal;purely sensory(affecting the thalamus) or motor(affecting the internal capsule)
Type of intracerebral hemorrhage often caused by hypertension w/c is due to minute dilations @ small artery bifurcations;ex.Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms(site of hemorrhagic rupture); often occurs in the basal ganglia/ thalamus,pons,cerebellum,& frontal lobe white matter
Intracerebral Hemorrhage
-consist of bleeding into the brain substance
CNS hemorrhage w/c consist of bleeding into the subarachnoid space;assoc. w/ berry aneurysm of the circle of Willis; caused by arteriovenous malformations, trauma,or hemorrhagic diatheses
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Cerebrovascular dse. charact. by brief episodes of impaired neurologic function caused by temporary disturbance of cerebral circl.;not assoc. w/ permanent damage but are considered precursors to more serious occlusive events
Transient Ischemic Attacks(TIAs)
Arterial hemorrhage assoc. w/ skull fracture & laceration of branches of middle meningeal artery;charact. by short period of consciousness(lucid interval)followed by rapidly developing signs of cerebral compression
Epidural Hematoma
-amenable to emergency surgical intervention due to bleeding into the brain substance itself does not occur