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37 Cards in this Set

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What vitamin and hormones control calcium metabolism?
Vit D
PTH
Calcitonin
What is it called when there is no systemic disruption of calcium homeostasis, but insoluble calcium salts
are deposited in tissues that are dead or dying
Dystrophic calcification
This occurs as occurs as a result of disrupted systemic Ca+2 homeostasis not as a result of tissue injury
Metastatic calcification
What are the 5 conditions associated with defects in calcium metabolism
Hyper vitaminossis D
Primary hyperparathyroidism
Pseudohyperparathyroidism
Renal secondary hyperparathyroidism
Nutritional hyperparathyroidism
What anatomic feature of male sheep often leads to obstruction by uroliths
The pizzle .......... you pelvic flexure
What type of crystals are often formed in cats with FUS?
Ruminants on pasture?
Dogs (esp. dalmations)?
Struvite
Silica
Uric acid/Urate
Precipitated uric acid crystals often accumulate as chalkywhite
"starburst" masses surrounded by a thin band of macrophages, lymphocytes, and fibroblasts are called?
Tophi (singular - Tophus)
Name four types of pneumoconioses, and the causitive factors.
(1) anthracosis, caused by carbon particles
(2) siderosis, caused by iron particles
(3) silicosis, caused by silicate particles
(4) asbestosis, caused by asbestos fibers
This drug is likely to give teeth yellowish discoloration?
Tetracycline
Michael Jackson supposedly has this condition causing his skin to become progressively paller?
Vitiligo
An increase of blood flow to an organ is called?
Hyperemia
The 4 cardinal signs of inflamation are
Rubor
Calor
Tumor
Dolor
Nutmeg pattern , decreased size, and increased firmness of the liver might lead one to what diagnosis
Chronic passive congestion
What is the term applied to each of these types of edema?
1. fluid accumulation in the peritoneal cavity
2. fluid accumulation in the thorax
3. fluid accumulation within the pericardial
4. generalized edema, usually in a fetus
1. hydroperitoneum or ascites
2. hydrothorax
3. hydropericardium
4. anasarca
Place in order from lowest protein content to highest these effusions

Modified transudate, transudate, and exudate
1. transudate an effusion with low protein and low cellularity

2. modified transudate an effusion with properties in-between those of
transudates and exudates

3.exudate an effusion with high protein and high cellularity
The majority of osmotic colloidal pressure is caused by what protein?
Albumin
What are four causes of hypovolemic shock?
i. diarrhea
ii. vomiting
iii. sweating
iv. water deprivation
Release of histamines and other vasoactive substances may lead to this type of shock
Anaphylactic
The typical shock organ for the dog is?

for the human and cat?
dog - liver

human/cat - lungs
The clinical signs of shock are:
1. cold skin and extremities (although skin is warm in early septic shock)
2. tachycardia
a. weak, rapid pulse
3. cyanotic mucous membranes
4. slow capillary refill time
5. weakness, disorientation
A piece of thrombus that hasbroken off and is free in the vasculature is called?
embolism - Bitch!
A piece of thrombus that hasbroken off and is free in the vasculature is called?
embolism - Bitch!
Describe the 5 steps involved in hemostasis
1. Reflex vasoconstriction
2. Activation of platelets and formation of a primary platelet plug
a. platelets adhere to subendothelial collagen via a linkage molecule, or a sort of protein
anchor
i. von Willebrand's Factor (vWF)
b. the initial platelet aggregation is reversible up to a certain point
3. Activation of coagulation cascades to form a terminal plug
4. Confinement of platelet activity and coagulation to the site of injury
5. Resolution of the hemostatic plug by fibrinolysis or fibrosis
What are the 4 Vitamin K dependant clotting factors?
Prothrombin (II) and factors VII, IX, X
List Virchow's triad(3 things that predispose thromboses)
Injury to vascular wall
Altered bloodflow
Hypercoagulability
What is different in bland vs septic thrombii?
septic thrombi are infected with bacteria
You examine a Doberman pinscher, and determine it has a coagulopathy. The animal has a normal platelet count but still has an elongated clotting time. What factor my be absent?
von Willebrand's factor
Thrombocytopenia is:
increased destruction or reduced production of platelets
What are some conditions that may lead to Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)?
i. extensive necrosis
ii. shock
iii. vasculitis
iv. sepsis
vi. various cancers
vii. burns
viii. systemic viral diseases
ix. heat stroke
x. snake bite
xi. acute pancreatitis
xii. polycythemia
xiii. the nephrotic syndrome
Coagulopathy with hemorrhagic diathesis in which widespread vascular injury (or possibly a hypercoagulability state of some type) leads to the formation of fibrinous clots (microthrombi) in blood vessels throughout the body is called what?
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
This is defined as a rapid hemorrhage into the pericardial cavity which restricts dilation of the heart chambers and (especially) hinders filling of the right atrium because of pressure effects on the vena cavae
Cardiac tamponade
The term for a severe defficiency in circulating platelets is
thrombocytopenia
Fluid which collects in noninflammatory conditions (edema related to passive congestion, hypoproteinemia, etc.) whether in the serous cavities or elsewhere and typically is colorless or amber, transparent, and watery with a low protein content (less than 3%), and a specific gravity of 1.015 or less is
A) Exudate
B) Transudate
B) transudate
What are some key factors that differentiate active and passive hyperemia?
Active hyperemia is the engorgement of the arterial vessels, it results from increased arterial blood flow to a tissue or portion of a tissue and is actively mediated by the autonomic nervous system or by vasoactive substances released or activated locally in the affected area.

Venous engorgement in some settings may be partly a consequence of active hyperemia, but basically is a passive phenomenon in which the veins and venules become distended with blood because of impedance of venous drainage.
What stains would you use to differentially stain copper (normallly golden brown) in hepatocytes?
Rhodamine - copper turns orang-red
Rubeanic acid - """"""""" greenish black
Cor pulmonale affects which side of the heart?
Right heart failure caused by pulmonary arterial hypertension
Name 3 mechanisms of cardiac compensation
1. Ventricular hypertrophy increases contractility
2. Ventricular dilation increases filling capacity
3. Decompensation of heart = heart failure