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8 Cards in this Set

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for ANP describe: its effect on salt and volume, its major tissue sources, how its regulated, its effect on smooth muscle, BP, GFR, natriuresis, aldosterone levels, and water intake
Comes from atrial myocytes and brain. Released in response to atrial distention. Causes vasodilation
Increases GFR, and naturesis. Decreases Renin release, aldosterone, water intake, arterial pressure, and intravascular salt and volume
List the causes and clin features of cushing's syndrome, and categorize them as a disorder of the adrenal cortex, pituitary, or nonendocrine gland
Cushing's Syndrome is caused by excessive corticosteroids while the disease refers to benign pituitary microadenomas causing increased ACTH production.
adrenal causes: 20%
pituitary causes: due to excessive ACTH production
Exogenous cause: most common, from administration of glucocorticoids
Explain how lab values change with adrenal, pituitary, and nonendocrine causes of Cushing's
Adrenal: cortisol is high in the serum, low ACTH b/c of feedback, and high 24hr cortisol.
Pituitary: cortisol is high, ACTH is high, and 24hrcortisol is high
Nonendocrine: Cortisol is high in the serum, High ACTH if there is a tumor, Low ACTH if its drug mediated. High 24hr cortisol
Understand the risk factors and how MHC genes play a role in DM1
the key sites of genetic susceptibility are based in the coding for MHC2 structures. they are located on 6p21. HLADR3 and HLADR4 are seen in 90% of DM1. DM1 is based on a tcell attack. the MHC mentioned causes an inappropriate response from the T cells, causing macrophage activation, and direct Cytotoxicity.
Name Drugs that cause DI, and differentiate between central and nephrogenic DI
Drugs: Lithium, Demeclocycline, methoxyflurane, amphotericin B, Cisplatin, Rifampin, Foscarnet
Central DI: Dmg to Pituitary gland, tx with synthetic ADH
Nephrogenic: Resistance to ADH via V2 receptors. Tx with thiazide
Describge the hypothetical role of Chronic Inflammatory Disorders or infectious processes of fatigue syndromes:
Chronic Inflammatory: could be a state of chronic immune activation, possibly of polyclonal activity of B lymphocytes, initiated by a virus.
Infectious: onset of illness due to influenza like infection, mono, EBV.
Discuss the D/DX of hyper and hyponatremia
Hyponatremia: Excess fluid loss, renal insufficiency, Salt wasting nephropathy, Prolonged exercise, SIADH, polydypsia,
Hypernatremia: poor fluid intake, salt poisoning, water loss
Describe the role of hormones in balancing NA, K, Ca, H20, and Id the source for each
ADH from posterior pituitary for water
Aldosterone by Adrenal Cortex for K and NA

Calcitonin/PTH for calcium from parathyroid/Thyroid