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55 Cards in this Set

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A rare cyst of the gastrointestinal tract (congenital cystic malformation) that most frequently occur in the small intestine, particularly the ileum and esophagus, but can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract (from the mouth to the anus).
Enteric duplication cysts (Duplication Cysts)
A benign or malignant encapsulated tumor, especially of the gonads, that consists of different types of tissue such as skin, hair, or muscle.
Starting with or having to do with the nerves or the nervous system.
Neurogenic tumors are commonly found where?
the mediastinum, especially in the posterior mediastinum or in the chest wall.
A lung tumor (a tumor of the pulmonary apex )that rarely causes any symptoms.
Pancoast tumors
(pulmonary sulcus tumor or superior sulcus tumor)
Pancoast tumors are tumors that form in what part of the body?
at the extreme apex (very top) of either the right or left lung in the superior sulcus (a shallow furrow on the surface of the lung).
What type of tumors are a subset of lung cancers that invade the top of the chest wall.
Pancoast tumors - also called-
(pulmonary sulcus tumor
or superior sulcus tumor)
a blood vessel that is normally present in a fetus and has special tissue in its wall that causes it to close in the first hours or days of life.
The “ductus arteriosus”
What occurs most commonly in a short segment of the aorta just beyond where the arteries to the head and arms take off, as the aorta arches inferiorly toward the abdomen and legs.
What is a narrowing of the aorta, the main blood vessel carrying oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle of the heart to all of the organs of the body.
Coarctation of the aorta
a condition in which a portion of heart muscle (myocardium) becomes thick (hypertrophied ) without any obvious cause.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)
any disease process (damage to or a defect in) involving one or more of the valves of the heart .
Valvular heart disease
the aortic and mitral valves are on which side of the heart?
the pulmonary and tricuspid valves are on which side of the heart?
Valvular heart disease problems may be : 1._________
Anaswer ;
1.congenital (inborn)
2.acquired (due to another cause later in life).
an opening in the ventricular septum, or dividing wall between the two lower chambers of the heart known as the right and left ventricles.
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD),

Also called a hole in the heart, is a common heart defect.
Is Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD),
congenital (inborn) or acquired (due to another cause later in life).
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD), is a congenital, (present at birth), defect.
a form of congenital heart defect that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)
The tissue that divides the right and left atria.
interatrial septum
a combination of four congenital abnormalities is known as..?
Tetralogy of fallot
Tetralogy of Fallot is a combination of four congenital abnormalities.
The four defects are;
a ventricular septal defect (VSD) pulmonary stenosis
a misplaced aorta and
a thickened right ventricular wall (right ventricular hypertrophy).
Breast pathology's;
7. .
Benign tumor
Inflammatory conditions
Post surgery or radiation
Implant rupture
a general term for the abnormal growth or development of cells or organs.
Dysplasia simply means the changed structure of tissue.
a benign condition which becomes apparent as hardening around the edges of the breast, often occurring in both breasts
Breast Dysplasia
fluid-filled sacs (one or many) within breast. They're often described as round or oval lumps with distinct edges. In texture, they usually feels like a soft grape or a water-filled balloon, but sometimes they feels firm.
Breast cysts
Breast cysts form when ?
Breast cysts range in size from _____ to __________.
(A)normal milk glands in the breast get bigger.
(B) B1/ smaller than a pea, to
B2/ larger than a ping pong ball.
Which type of cancer cells block the lymphatic vessels in the skin of the breast and cause a blockage in lymph flow ...
Inflammatory breast cancer -
an accelerated form of breast cancer that is usually not detected by mammogram or ultrasound. but does lead to a reddened, inflamed appearance to the breast.
Cancers originating from the inner lining of milk ducts are known as !. __________
Cancers originating from lobules are
known as 2. _________
1.ductal carcinomas
2.lobular carcinomas
Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that starts from cells of the breast. A malignant tumor is a group of cancer cells that may do what?
grow into (invade) surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of the body.
the formation of scar tissue in the breast is The major problem associated with ..?
ruptured Silicone gel breast implants (SGBIs)
Abdomen Pathology's ;
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Hepatic metastases
Venous thrombosis
a noncancerous liver tumor made of widened (dilated) blood vessels.
A hepatic hemangioma
Liver hemangioma is sometimes called
hepatic hemangioma or cavernous hemangioma.
A liver hemangioma is made up of
a tangle of blood vessels.
a primary malignancy (cancer) of the liver. Most cases of this are secondary to either a viral hepatitide infection (hepatitis B or C) or cirrhosis (alcoholism being the most common cause of hepatic cirrhosis).
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), also called malignant hepatoma) .
cancer that has spread to the liver from somewhere else in the body.
Liver metastases (or)
Hepatic metastases (HM)
a sudden blockage of a blood vessel, usually with a clot. It differs from thrombosis in that it can be used to describe any form of blockage, not just one formed by a clot. When it occurs in a major vein, it can, in some cases, cause deep vein thrombosis.
Vascular occlusion
This is caused by occlusion of the hepatic veins.
Budd–Chiari syndrome
disorder that results in too much iron being absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
an iron overload disorder characterized by a progressive increase in total body iron stores and deposition of iron in body organs resulting in some dysfunction.
A kidney disorder passed down through families in which multiple cysts form on the kidneys causing them to become enlarged.
CANCEROUS cells are found in the lining of very small tubes,(tubules) in the kidney.
Renal cell carcinoma
cancer that usually occurs in the urinary system-and - Is the most common type of bladder, ureter urethra and urachus cancer and 2nd most common type of kidney cancer.
Transitional cell carcinoma
arises from the transitional epithelium, (A tissue lining the inner surface urinary system organs)
Transitional cell carcinoma
the most common malignant tumor of t5he kidneys in children.
Wilms Tumor
Wilms tumor is also known as ..
adrenal masses (AMs) are often discovered during an unrelated imaging procedure and them are termed what?
Adrenal Incidentalomas (IAs)
a common benign tumor arising from the cortex of the adrenal gland.
adrenal cortical adenoma
rare tumor of adrenal gland tissue resulting in the release of too much epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Pheochromocytoma (PCC)
a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands.
Pheochromocytoma (PCC)
a collection of tissue, fluid, debris, pancreatic enzymes, and blood in the abdomen. It can develop after acute pancreatitis.
Pancreatic Pseudocyst
an inherited disease of your secretory glands, including the glands that make mucus and sweat.
"Inherited" means that the disease is passed through the genes from parents to children
Cystic Fibrosis
People who have this inherit two faulty genes—one from each parent. The parents likely don't have the disease themselves.
this disease mostly affects the lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, sinuses, and sex organs.
Cystic fibrosis (CF)
Most commonly caused by alcohol abuse and gallstones
For reasons not yet fully understood, there is a release of activated pancreatic enzymes into the pancreas and surrounding tissues which causes tissue destruction.
a cancer of an epithelium that originates in glandular tissue. Epithelial tissue includes, but is not limited to, the surface layer of skin, glands and a variety of other tissue that lines the cavities and organs of the body.
Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma