Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

114 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
What is a cataract
An opacifaction of the lens
Name 6 substances that are known to cause cataracts
Phospholine iodide (topical)
What 4 physical agents may cause cataracts
Ultraviolet light, Trauma, Intraocular surgery, Ultrasound
Name 9 systemic diseases associated with cataracts
Congenital rubella virus, Diabetes mellitus, Down syndrome, Atopic dermatitis, Scleroderma, Alport syndrome, Cretinism, Fabry disease, Galactosemia
What is the most common type of cataract in the US
Senile cataract
What is presbyopia
Often referred to as old age vision, it is a refractive condition associated with aging in which there is diminished power of accommodation resulting from loss of elasticity of the lens
At what age does presbyopia usually occur
Occurs in most persons after 40-50 years of age
What is the ultimate result of presbyopia
People begin to have difficulty reading and require spectacles for near vision
What is keratitis
Inflammation of the cornea secondary to an infectious or mechanical etiology
Name 5 infectious agents frequently involved in keratitis
Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pseudomonas, Herpes virus, Chlamydia
What predisposes the cornea to infection
Exposure or trauma
What is the treatment for corneal opacities secondary to scarring
Corneal transplant
What is the most common complaint of a patient suffering from a corneal abrasion
What is used to diagnose a corneal abrasion
Fluorescein test
What is band keratopathy
Calcium phosphate depositions in a horizontal band across the superficial central cornea
With what condition is band keratopathy usually seen
What is the pathognomonic ocular finding in Wilson disease
Kayser-Fleishcer rings—golden rings of copper deposits in Descemet membrane of the cornea
What percent of untreated Wilson disease patients with neurologic symptoms have Kayser-Fleischer rings
100%, eventually
What ophthalmologic procedure helps visualize Kayser-Fleischer rings
A slit-lamp examination
What is retinal detachment
A separation of the neurosensory retina from the pigment epithelium and its supportive choroid, resulting in retinal infarction
What is the pathophysiology of retinal detachment
Damage to the retina allows fluid to collect in the subretinal space
Name 4 causes of retinal detachment
Age, Trauma, Ocular surgery, Diabetes
What are common complaints of a patient with a detached retina
Floaters, blind spots, and flashing lights
What is the treatment of choice for retinal detachment
Surgery, either sclera bucking therapy or vitrectomy
What is retinitis pigmentosa
Hereditary, progressive retinal degeneration in both eyes
Name 3 symptoms of retinitis pigmentosa
Night blindness (usually in childhood)
Loss of peripheral vision, progressing over many years to tunnel vision
Eventual night blindness
What is retinoblastoma
Hereditary, malignant intraocular tumor of retinal cells
What is the most common childhood ocular malignancy and what is its incidence
Retinoblastoma, affecting 1:20,000 to 1:34,000 children
Name 5 presenting signs of retinoblastoma
White pupil (leukocoria)
Squint (strabismus)
Poor vision
Spontaneous hyphema (blood in the anterior chamber of the eye)
Red, painful eye
What is diabetic retinopathy
A progressive microangiopathy of the blood vessels of the retina in diabetic patients
Name and describe the 2 types of diabetic retinopathy
Non-proliferative (background): retinoscopic hemorrhages without neovascularization
Proliferative: advanced retinoscopic vascular changes with neovascularization
What is the most common complaint with diabetic retinopathy
Decreased visual acuity
What are 2 modalities used for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy
Retinoscopy; Fluorescein angiogram
In severe cases of diabetic retinopathy, what is the treatment of choice
Photocoagulation with argon laser to peripheral retina
What is hypertensive retinopathy
Retinal changes caused by high blood pressure
Name 6 features of hypertensive retinopathy
Arteriolar narrowing
Copper wiring: dull light reflections from blood vessel surfaces
Flame-shaped hemorrhages: hemorrhages in the retinal nerve fiber layer
Exudates: often radiating from the center of the macula (macular star)
Cotton-wool spots: fluffy white bodies (infarctions) in the superficial retina
What is a cherry-red spot
An apparent color change in the retinal area of sharpest vision (fovea) that results from the opacification of the retinal layers around it
Name two conditions in which cherry-red spots are seen
Central retinal artery occlusion; Tay-Sachs disease
What is glaucoma
An ocular disease complex characterized by increased intraocular pressure
What are 3 classifications of glaucoma
Chronic open angle glaucoma; Narrow angle glaucoma; Congential glaucoma
Name the 3 types of chronic open angle glaucoma and identify the most common type
Bilateral; Insidious; Slowly progressive. Slowly progressive is the most common type and accounts for 90% of the cases of chronic open angle glaucoma
What is the pathophysiology of glaucoma
Increased intraocular pressure (caused by either increased intraocular aqueous humor production or decreased outflow of aqueous humor) leads to optic nerve degeneration
Glaucoma is diagnosed by what 3 modalities
Increased intraocular pressure; Retinoscopy (optic disc cupping); Peripheral vision field testing
How is glaucoma treated
Intraocular pressure is decreased through topical eye drops, surgery, or both
What is papilledema
Optic nerve head swelling with engorged blood vessels
When is papilledema seen
With elevated pressure within the skull
What is pseudotumor cerebri
Intracranial inflammation that resembles a brain tumor
Name 4 symptoms associated with pseudotumor cerebri
Optic nerve head swelling (papilledema); Headaches; Protrusion of the eyeball (proptosis); Transient loss or reduction in vision
Who gets pseudotumor cerebri most frequently
Obese women in their 30s
What are the 8 signs of serious ocular pathology in a red eye
Visual loss; Pain; Opacities; Pupil irregularities; Perilimbal erythema; Increased pressure; History of eye disease; Refractory to treatment
What are the clinical signs for bacterial conjunctivitis
Conjunctival redness with purulent discharge
What are the clinical signs for viral conjunctivitis
Conjunctival redness with serous discharge
What are the clinical signs for allergic conjunctivitis
Conjunctival redness with clear discharge
What are the clinical signs for acute narrow angle glaucoma
Acute pain, cloudy cornea, perilimbar redness, blurred vision
What are the clinical signs for iritis
Perilimbal redness, irregular pupil, pain, decreased vision
What are the clinical signs for corneal ulcer
Epithelial defect with infiltrate, pain
What are the clinical signs for orbital cellulits
Periocular swelling, erythematous ocular surface, decreased vision
What is strabismus
Misalignment of the eyes
Why is it important to correct strabismus
To allow proper development of visual acuity and binocular vision
What condition develops if strabismus is not corrected
Define amblyopia
Decreased vision in one or both eyes without detectable anatomic damage in the eye or visual pathways
What is optic neuritis
Inflammatory demyelination of the optic nerve. It is the most common ocular finding in multiple sclerosis
Name 2 symptoms of optic neuritis
Blurred vision; Pain on eye movement
Characterize the visual acuity in optic neuritis
Will refraction help acuity in optic neuritis
What papillary abnormality occurs in optic neuritis
An afferent papillary defect
What is an afferent papillary defect
Reduced pupilloconstriction on ipsilateral eye illumination with persistence on contralateral illumination
What visual field defect is common in optic neuritis
A central scotoma
What is the name for optic neuritis behind the optic nerve head
Retrobulbar neuritis
What is the appearance of the optic disc in optic neuritis
Pink and swollen with indistinct margin if optic nerve head is involved. In retrobulbar neuritis, the disc is normal
What 3 things characterize Horner syndrome
Ptosis of the upper eyelid; Miosis: constriction of the pupil; Anhidrosis: absence of sweating on the affected side
What causes a Horner syndrome
A destructive lesion of the superior cervical ganglion
What is xanthomas (xanthelasma)
Small yellowish lipid deposits on the eyelids
In what 3 conditions are xanthomas commonly seen
Familial hypercholesterolemia; Primary biliary cirrhosis; High blood fat levels
In what population are xanthomas most common
The elderly
What is amaurosis fugax
Sudden, transient decrease in vision in one eye, varying from visual field constriction to total blindness
What causes amaurosis fugax
Reduced cerebral circulation resulting in insufficient blood flow to the ophthalmic artery
What is keratoconjunctivits sicca
Often called dry eye syndrome, it is corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear secretion
What condition is associated with keratoconjunctivitis sicca
Sjogren syndrome
Define esotropia
Eyes turned inward
Define exotropia
Eyes turned outward
Define hypertropia
Eyes turned upward
Define hypotropia
Eyes turned downward
Define diplopia
Double vision
Define blepharitis
Inflammation of the eyelids
Define hordeolum
A suppurative inflammation of a gland of the eyelid
Define sty
An external hordeolum of the oil glands of Zeis (in the follicles of eyelashes)
Define chalazion
An internal hordeolum that causes an inflammatory lump in a meibomian gland resulting in a painless swelling in the eyelid
Define pinguecula
Yellowish, benign conjunctival lump
Define pterygium
A triangular fold of vascularized conjunctiva that grows horizontally onto the cornea in the shape of an insect wing
Define arcus senilis
A white ring due to lipid deposition in the peripheral cornea that occurs with aging
Define proptosis
Abnormal protrusion of bulging forward of the eye
Define sympathetic ophthalmia
Autoimmune destruction of the contralateral good eye after penetrating injury causes blindness to ipsilateral eye
What is the most common ocular finding in multiple sclerosis
Optic neuritis
What are the clinical features of uveal melanoma
Most frequently occuring intraocular tumor in adults
Risk factors
UV light
History of cutaneous melanoma or multiple nevi
Family history of ocular melanoma
Light color of the iris
Protective features: Black skin, brown iris, glasses
What is the uveal tract
The pigmented vascular coat of the eye consisting of the iris, ciliary body and choroid
How does uveal melanoma presents
Patient with decreased vision or blindness with an enlarged liver
IF the melanoma occurs in the iris, it may change the color of the iris
Late manifestations: Glaucoma, Cataracts, Retinal detachment
No pain unless there is associated glaucoma or inflammation
What location of uveal melanoma is associated with a better prognosis
The iris, at this site they are usually detected earlier and may even be resected (not enucleated)
What does this picture demonstrate
Uveal melanoma

Fundus photograph of a choroidal tumor. The tumor is out of focus due to the elevation of the mass. This tumor would be classified as large clinically and medium-sized pathologically. Elevation of the retina by the bulging tumor mass may lead to retinal detachment and the absence of transillumination of the lesion. Tumors vary in size and pigmentation. Some melanomas are amelanotic.
What are the treatment options for uveal melanoma
Resection for a few (iris), radiation, enucleation, and chemotherapy (extraocular)
What is the most common cause of death from uveal melanoma
Liver metastases

Conjuctival melanoma is localized
What does this picture demonstrate
Uveal melanoma

Fundus photograph of a small tumor
with orange pigment on the surface.
A dark mass is present beneath the
retinal blood vessels.
What does this picture demonstrate
Uveal melanoma

Malignant melanoma arising from a preexisting nevus in the posterior portion of the choroid. The retina is elevated as the tumor bulges into the vitreous cavity. Malignant melanoma is the most common malignant intraocular tumors. The tumor arises from melanocytes or nevi in the uveal tract.
What does this picture demonstrate
Uveal melanoma

Malignant melanoma arising from a preexisting nevus in the posterior portion of the choroid. The retina is elevated as the tumor bulges into the vitreous cavity. Malignant melanoma is the most common malignant intraocular tumors. The tumor arises from melanocytes or nevi in the uveal tract.
What does this picture demonstrate
Uvela melanoma

Histologic types:
A (no visible nucleoli)
B (prominent nucleoli readily visible)
What does this picture demonstrate
Uveal melanoma

Histologic types:
Epitheliod (polygonal cells with identifiable borders and nucleoli)
What does this picture demonstrate
Uveal melanoma

Most tumors are a mixture of the three different types with some necrosis
With uveal melanoma, what features indicate an adverse prognosis
Epitheliod cells
Large size
Involvement of the ciliary body
Extrasceleral extension
Older patient
Increased mitotic activity
What are some infections and inflammatory conditions that affect the uvea
Bacterial, Viral, Fungal
Sarcoidosis: uveal involvement is common involving about one-third of patients
Sympathetic ophthalmia: autoimmune bilateral granulomatous inflammation secondary to a traumatic injury in one eye.
This condition, although rare, arises within a few weeks of the injury. Once the autoimmune response begins, bilateral blindness is usually the final result.
The ophthalmologist must decide in a few weeks whether to remove the injured eye to prevent the response.
With uveal melanoma, what is the pattern of spread and how does it differ from melanoma of the skin
Direct extension through the scleral canal
Local metastases through intravascular spread
General metastases: hepatic metastases predominate, 95% of uveal melanomas with metastases have liver involvement
While melanoma of the skin spreads through the lymphatic channels, uveal melanoma spreads hematogenously because there are no lymphatic channels in the eye
What does this picture demonstrate
Conjunctival melanoma

Accounts for 5% of ocular melanomas
Behaves like typical melanoma of the skin
Has propensity for local recurrence
What does this picture demonstrate

The most frequently occuring intraocular tumor in children
On physical exam, leukocoria is present
Median age of diagnosis is 2 years in boys and 1 year in girls, if unilateral. Less than 1 year bilateral
70-75% unilateral, of these 10-15% have germline mutation
95% are cured
What does this picture demonstrate

Note small round blue cells with rosettes
Results from defect in RB gene, a tumor suppressor gene at 13q14
Hereditary and nonhereditary forms. Bilateral tumors in hereditary retinoblastoma
Believed to arise form neuroepithelial cell in retina
Increased risk of osteosarcoma
What do these pictures demonstrate

Left: Small round blue cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and minimal cytoplasm
Right: Flexner Wintersteiner rosettes and numerous mitotic figures