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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the most important thing to know about a patient?
history
What does a screening test lead to?
hypothesis
What does the first set of test tell us?
is disease present or possible?
What does the second set of tests tell us?
a more definitive test; determines what disease is and makes sure you get it right
What are some types of tests?
history, physical exam, imaging, physiological, clincial laboratory and anatomic pathology
What is the definition of an analytical characteristic of a medical test?
intrinsic to the performance of the test; doing the test
What is a clinical use characteristic of a medical test?
using the test to diagnosis or moitor disease or clinical abnormalities; interpreting the test result
What are reference ranges?
sampling 95% of a normal pop. and outside range can be determined "abnormal"
What are some characteristics of reference ranges?
specific to laboratory, gender and age
What is the problem with multiphasic testing?
increases the likelihood of an abnormal result
What are some examples of preanalytical error?
specimen requirements, patient conditions, biological variability
Are clinical laboratory measurements precise or accurate?
highly precise (reproducible) but not accurate because there is no known absolute standard
What is the most important information about any medical test?
the cumulative body of scientific data and information regarding its use in expermential settings
What is a true negative?
records negative result when there is no disease
What is a false negative?
records a negative result when there is in fact disease
What is a true positive?
records a positive test when there is disease
What is a false positive?
records a positive result when there is no disease
What is sensitivity
a measure of test efficiency in detecting a specific disease
What is specificity?
a measure of test efficiency at indicating the absence of a specific disease
What test would be used to confirm a diagnosis?
highly specific
How do you achieve 100% specificity?
raise the upper limits of the reference range
What happens when the upper limits of a reference range are lowered?
more sensitive test...also leads to more FP
What does Bayes theorem predict?
the more prevalent an event is, the more likely it is due to a casual agent or specific condition in the population