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101 Cards in this Set

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Pouch or sac like opening in the bowel?
Traction Diverticulum
Usually in terminal ileum, chronic inflammatory bowel disorder most common in young adults?
Crohn's Disease
Open tract between the esophagus and the trachea, usually found in newborns and radiation therapy patients.
Tracheosophageal Fistula
Dilated veins in the esophagus
Esophageal Varices
A portion of the stomach pushes through the esophageal hiatus
Hiatal Hernia
inflammation of the mucosa of the stomach
Gastritis
crater in the epithelium of the duodenum
Duodenal Ulcer
erosion of the stomach epithelium
Gastric Ulcer
cancer of the stomach
Gastric carcinoma
obstructed bowel, adynamic, paralitic, volvulus, and intussusception.
small bowel obstruction
telescoping of one part of the intestinal tract
intussusception
inflammatory bowel disease often seen in young adults. Unknown cause. Involves only mucosal layer of colon.
Ulcerative Colitis
large number or out-pouching in weakened area of bowels
Diverticulosis
cancer of the rectum. Applecore, napkinring
carcinoma of colon
Gallstones
Calculi in the Gallbladder
accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity
Ascites
Free air in the peritoneal cavity
pneumoperitoneum
difference in tissue between tissue and organs?
subject contrast
Creatinine and BUN levels?
Creatinine- .6-1.5

BUN- 8-25
kidney stones
Nephrolithiasis
Kidney drops more than 5cm from supine to AP
Nephroptosis
Urine in blood
Uremia
What is ureterolithiasis?
stone in ureter
What is Hydronephrosis?
obstruction of kidney
What is Ureterostenosis?
narrowing of ureter
What is nephritis?
inflammation of kidney
What is urinary retention?
retain urine
What is UTI?
Urinary Tract Infection
What is Renal Hypertension?
Hyertension due to renal disease
What is VCUG?
Voiding Cystourethrogram
What is lithotripsy?
using energy waves to break down stones
What is nephrectomy
surgical removal of kidney
How much urine is produced a day?

It is a waste product of what?
1 to 2 liters

metabolism
The 2 ureters convey urine from where to where?
kidneys to bladder
Ther Urethra conveys urine from where to where?
urinary bladder to the exterior
____________ are above and upon the kidney and are part of the endocrine system.
Adrenals
What is renal parenchyma?
functional part of kidney (nephrons 1.25-1.5 million in kidney)
What is glomerualr filtrate?
Filtrate removed by glomerulus in bowman's capsule.
What percent of the filtrate becomes urine?
less than 1%
An increased level of nitrogenous waste such as urea and creatinine can cause the patient to suffer from?
Uremia
Medullary substance of the kidney is formed by what?
renal pyramid
Minor calyx gather to form?
Major
The microscopic portion of the renal parenchyma is the?
Nephron
Trigone is a portion of the?
bladder
Where are the UP junctions?
renal pelvis becomes ureter
Where are the UV junctions?
where ureter becomes bladder
Where are the 3 common places for renal stones to stop?
UP, UV, Pelvic Brim
Why do you do 30 degree oblique kidneys?
kidneys 30 degrees to coronal plane
With the patient in a 30 degree RPO which kidney is parallel to the IR?
Left
The kidneys normally extend from the level of _______ to _______.
T-12, L-3
If it is a hyperstehnic patient where will the kidneys be? Astehnic?
Higher, lower
The right kidney is higher or lower than the left? Why?
lower, the liver
the kidney moves about how much with respiration?
2.5 cm/ inch
From recumbent to erect the kidneys should move no more than how many inches? Anymore than this is considered what?
5 inches, Nephroptosis
A renal column is what portion of the cortex?
cortex between pyramids
Are the ureters within or outside of the peritoneum?
retroperitoneal
The adult bladder can hold how much fluid?
500 ml
the desire for micturition occurs when how much urine is in the bladder?
250 ml
Where does the ureters enter the bladder? Where does the Urethra exit the bladder?
trigone, trigone
The male urethra passes through the __________ glande which is portion of the reproductive system.
prostate
What is antegrade filling in a normal exam?
normal flow
What is retrograde filling in a urinary exam?
against the flow
What is an IVU/XU?
Intravenous Urogram/ Excretory Urogram
Is an IVU a functional exam?
yes
Would any retrograde urography be considered a functional exam?
no
Why use ureteral compression?

When should it not be used?
Keep contrast in kidney

if there is a stone or colostomy
Why do an upright post void?
nephroptosis, retention, fallen trigone
The greatest concentration of contrast media in the kidney occurs when?
Between 15 minutes and 20 minutes
what can acute vascular injury result in?

What do they mean?
Anoxia and Hypoxia

Anoxia- lack of oxygen

Hypoxia- Iadequate oxygen at the cellular level
A mass of coagulated blood or a clot
Thrombosis
any obstruction of a blood vessel by any means?
Embolus
Progressive wasting away of any body part?
Chronic Injury/Atrophy
What causes acromegaly?
Pituitary Adenoma
What can achondroplasias and dyschondroplaisas cause?
Dwarfism
increase in number of cells that can lead to a neoplasm?
Hyperplaisa
Palmar means?
Volar
What is plantar?
Sole of foot
What does dorsum pedis mean?
top of foot
What does the bony throax contain?
T-Spine, Ribs, Sternum
What are the divisions of the respiratory system?
pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Brocnhi
What are the divisions of the pharynx?
nasopharynx, oropharynx, Larynopharynx
What keeps food from going into the larynx?
epiglottis, vocal cords
Where does the trachea go from (vertebrae)?

Where does it bifurcate at?
C6-T4 T5

Carina
The rt lung has how many lobes?

Lt
3, 2
Larynx is in the anterior or posterior neck?
Anterior
The Larynx is suspended by what bone?
Hyoid
The trachea is anterior or posterior to the esophagus?
Anterior
What are subtractive diseases?
Early lung abcess, emphysema, pnemothorax
The bifurcation of the trachea is at what level?
T4-T5
The lungs are covered by the serous membrane called?
visceral pleura
anything that enters or exits in a pt or depression?
hilus
primary muscle of respiration
diaphragm
The esophagus is anterior or posterior to the desending aorta?
anterior
The manubrium is at what level?

The body of the sternum forms the sternal angle at what level?

The xiphoid is at what level?
T2/T3

T4/T5

T/10
The SC Joint is at what level?
T2-T3
The anterior end of the rib is called what portion?

The posterior end of the rib is called what portion?
Sternal

Vertebral
All ribs have costocartilage except which ones?
11th and 12th
The space between the ribs is termed what?
intercostal space
The joint between the rib head and the spine is what?
Costovertebral joint
There are how many pairs of costovertebral?

Costotransverse?
12

10
The first 7 ribs are termed what?

8, 9, 10?

11, 12?
true or vertebrosternal

Vertebrochondral
or false

Floating or false