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188 Cards in this Set

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-penia (suffix)
poverty. Thrombocytopenia--decrease in blood platelets
circ
-rhage,-rrhage, -rrhagia
discharge. Hemorrhage--discharge of blood
circ
Anasarca
severe, generalized edema
circ
Anemia
a reduction below normal limits of the total circulating red blood cell mass
circ
Aneurysm
a localized abnormal dilation in a blood vessel
circ
Angiogenesis
the process of post-natal blood vessel formation; seen as part of healing and as part of neoplasia
circ
Ascites
accumulation of edema fluid in the peritoneal cavity
circ
Cardiac tamponade
syndrome of acute cardiac failure caused by filling of the pericardial sac with blood or fluid that prevents normal pumping of the heart
circ
Congestion
accumulation of blood in the vessels of a tissue or at a site dure to impaired outflow
circ
Contusion
a bruise; injury caused by blunt force that damages vessels and causes interstitial bleeding without disruption of tissue continuity
circ
Cor Pulmonale
heart failure that occurs secondary to primary lung disease
circ
Cyanosis
a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to excessive concentration of reducted hemoglobin in the blood
circ
DIC
Disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome; disease process in which wide-spread thrombosis occurs throughout the body; "Death is Coming"
circ
Ecchymosis
blotchy, irregular areas of hemorrhage up to 2-3 cm in size
circ
Edema
increased fluid in interstitial tissue spaces; extravasation of water across the vascular wall into the interstitial spaces
circ
Embolism
the sudden blocking of an artery by a clot of material (embolus). The process of formation of an embolus.
circ
Embolus
a detached intravascular solid, liquid or gaseous mass that is carried by the blood to a site distant from its origin
circ
emia (suffix)
blood. Lipidemia--excess lipid in the blood.
circ
Epicardium
the inner layer of serous pericardium which is in contact with the heart
circ
Epistaxis
bleeding from the nose
circ
Erythropoiesis
increased formation of red blood cells
circ
Hema-,hemato-,hemo-
blood. Hematocrit--the volume percentage of RBCs in whole blood
circ
Hemarthrosis
blood within joint spaces
circ
Hematoma
extravascular blood clot that forms a mass within a tissue
circ
Hematopoiesis
formation of blood cells
circ
Hemopericardium
a spectrum of clinical disorders that are characterized by increased tendency for hemorrhage from usually insignificant injury
circ
Hemoperitoneum
accumulation of blood in the peritoneal cavity
circ
Hemoptysis
coughing up blood from the trachea and bronchi
circ
Hemorrhage
extravasation of blood due to vessel rupture
circ
Hemostasis
process of normal clotting of the blood
circ
Hemothorax
accumulation of blood in the thoracic cavity
circ
Hydro-, hygro-(prefix)
water; fluid. Hydronephrosis--distention of the renal pelvis and calices with urine
circ
Hydrothorax
accumulation of edema fluid in the pleural cavity
circ
Hydroureter
distention of the ureter with fluid due to obstruction
circ
Hyperemia
presence of an increased amount of blood in a part of an organ due to augmented tissue inflow and arteriolar dilation
circ
Hypoxia
any state of reduced oxygen availability
circ
Infarct
death of tissue caused by interruption of its blood supply; ischemic necrosis
circ
Ischemia
state of reduced blood flow
circ
Leuc-, Leuk-(prefix)
white. Leukocyte--white blood cell. Leukopenia--reduction in number of leukocytes in the blood.
circ
Nutmeg liver
gross lesion of chronic passive congestion of the liver; red & tan finely mottled pattern is visible
circ
Pericardial effusion
accumulation of edema fluid in the pericardial sac; hydropericardium
circ
Petechia
minute 1 to 2 mm pinpoint hemorrhages
circ
Phleb-(prefix)
vein. Phlebitis-inflammation of the vein
circ
Purpura
larger hemorrhages (>3mm) scattered on many body surfaces
circ
Shock
syndrome of cardiovascular collapse; final common pathway of many potentially lethal clinical events (hemorrhage, burns, massive trauma)
circ
Syncope
a temporary loss of consciousness due to insufficient cerebral blood flow (fainting)
circ
Thromboembolus
a clot of material that breaks free from a primary site, is transported in the bloodstream and becomes lodged at a secondary site
circ
Thrombosis
inappropriate activation of normal hemostatic processes; intravascular coagulation that produces a thrombus; pathological clotting
circ
Transudate
fluid with a low protein content and a specific gravity < 1.012; an ultrafiltrate of plasma
circ
-lysis (suffix)
to dissolve. Autolysis--self-dissolution.
gen
-malacia (suffix)
softening. Osteomalacia--softening of bone.
gen
-megaly (suffix)
great, large. Splenomegaly--enlargement of the spleen.
gen
-oid (suffix)
like; resembling. Leukemoid--like leukemia.
gen
-ologous (suffix)
relating to. Homologous--of similar structure.
gen
-oma (suffix)
tumor. Osteoma--tumor of bone.
gen
-opathy (suffix)
disease. Nephropathy--any disease of the kidney.
gen
-orrhea (suffix)
flow; discharge. Leukorrhea--white discharge.
gen
-oscopy (suffix)
view. Endoscopy--to view the inside; specifically, the intestine.
gen
-osis (suffix)
a prccess, especially a morbid one. Diverticulosis--involvement with diverticula.
gen
-ostomy (suffix)
mouth. Gastrostomy--creation of an artificial gastric fistula.
gen
-otomy (suffix)
cut. Cholecystotomy-incision into the gall bladder.
gen
-phage (suffix)
eat; devour. Macrophage-a cell that devours
gen
-plasia (suffix)
to form. Hyperplasia--an increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ
gen
-pnea (suffix)
breath. Dysnea--labored or difficult breathing
gen
-ptosis (suffix)
falling. Ptosis--drooping of the eyelid
gen
-rrhea (suffix)
abnormal or excessive flow. Steatorrhea--excessive lipid in the feces
gen
-stasis (suffix)
standing still. Hemostasis--arrest of blood circulation
gen
-trophy (suffix)
nourish. Dystrophy--defective or faulty nutrition
gen
Adeno- (prefix)
gland. Adenitis-inflammation of a gland
gen
Anis-, aniso (prefix)
unequal, dissimilar. Anisokaryosis--inequality in size of nuclei of cells
gen
Ante- (prefix)
before in time or space. Antemortem--before death
gen
Anti- (prefix)
against; counteracting. Antitoxin--an antibody to a toxin
gen
Arthr(o)- (prefix)
joint; articulation. Arthrolith--a calculus deposit within a joint
gen
Atrophy
a decrease in size of cells or decrease in size of a tissue or organ that was once normal in size; adaptation to a decreased work load or decreased nutritional stimulation
gen
Auto- (prefix)
self. Autolysis--self-dissolution, the postmortem enzymatic degredation of cells
gen
Autophagy
process by which a cell sequesters and digests its own cytoplasm and organelles; lysosomal digestion of the cell's own components
gen
Bilateral
affecting both sides
gen
Biopsy
the removal of a tissue sample from a living animal for diagnostic purposes
gen
Botryoid
shaped like a bunch of grapes
gen
Caseation necrosis
a vairant of coagulation necrosis in which dead tissue has a firm, dry, cheesy texture (dead tissue looks like cottage cheese)
gen
Caseous
having a consistency like that of cottage cheese
gen
Catarrh
inflammation of a mucous membrane with free discharge
gen
cele (suffix)
tumor or herniation. Meningocoele-hernial protrusion of meninges
gen
centesis (suffix)
puncture. Thoracocentesis--puncture of the pleural cavity
gen
Chemotaxis
locomotion of leukocytes that is oriented along a chemical gradient
gen
Chol-(prefix)
bile. Cholelith--gallstone, bile stone
gen
Cirrhosis
progressive loss of hepatic lobular structure with fibrous connective tissue. The liver is subdivided into nodules of proliferating hepatocytes surrounded by scar tissue.
gen
Contralateral
affecting or pertaining to the opposite side
gen
Corrugated
having a ripple-like distortion
gen
Cyst
an abnormal sac filled with gas, fluid, or semi-solid material that is lined by a membrane
gen
Cyst(o)- (prefix)
bladder. Cystitis--inflammation of the bladder
gen
Cyt(o)- (prefix)
cell. Cytomegaly--marked enlargement of cells
gen
Death
the irreversible cessation of activity in the heart, lungs or brain
gen
Dia-(prefix)
through; between. Diarrhea--fecal matter flowing through the bowel
gen
Diffuse
not definitely localized or limited; spread widely through a tissue or substance
gen
Disseminated
describes lesion distribution when an entire organ or structure contains many randomly distributed lesions throughout it
gen
Dys-(prefix)
difficult, bad, abnormal. Dysplasia--abnormal formation. Dyspnea--difficult breathing ; dysphagia--difficult swallowing
gen
ectomy (suffix)
excision. Cholecystectomy--excision of the gallbladder.
gen
Em-, en-, in (prefix)
into. Encyst--to enclose in a cyst or sac
gen
emesis (suffix)
vomit. Hematemesis--vomiting blood.
gen
encephalo-(prefix)
brain
gen
Encephalomalacia
softening of the brain; implies necrosis
gen
Endo-(prefix)
within. Endocardium--the inner lining of the heart. Endometrium--the mucous membrane lining the uterus.
gen
Enter(o)-(prefix)
intestine. Enteritis--inflammation of the intestine
gen
Epi-(prefix)
upon. Eipbulbar--situated on the eyeball
gen
Erosion
a partial loss of epithelial cells that does not extend through the basement membrane
gen
Etiology
the study of the cause of disease
gen
Euchromatin
dispersed, lightly-stained chromatin seen in the nucleus of a cell
gen
Ex(o)-(prefix)
out of; away from; outside of. Exophytic--projecting out from a surface
gen
Fistula
an abnormal opening or connection from one tissue or organ to another
gen
Flocculent
having downy or flaky shreds
gen
Focal
a lesion that occurs as a single, clearly defined focus
gen
Friable
breaks apart or crumbles easily
gen
Gangrene
a severe form of coagulation necrosis; dry and moist types
gen
genesis (suffix)
origin. Spermatogenesis--formation of sperm
gen
Grey matter
the grey nervous tissue of the brain and spinal cord consisting of the cell bodies and dendrites of nerve cells rather than the myelinated axons
gen
Grumose
lumpy or clotted
gen
Hemosiderin
golden yellow to brown pigment derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells
gen
Hernia
a weakness or defect in the wall of a body cavity the permits protrusion of a serosa-lined sac, usually the abdominal cavity, umbilical and inguinal
gen
Hetero-(prefix)
dissimilar. Heterocellular--composed of more than one type of cell
gen
Heterochromatin
condensed, basophilic chromatin seen in the nucleus of the cell
gen
Heterophagy
phagocytosis; process of lysosomal digestion of materials ingested from the extracellular environment
gen
Homeo-, homo-(prefix)
similar; same. Homeotypical--resembling the normal or usual type
gen
Hyper-(prefix)
above and beyond; excessive. Hyperacidity--excessive acidity
gen
Hyperplasia
an increase in size due to cellular division & increased number of cells in a tissue
gen
Hypertrophy
an increase in the size of a cell, or increased size of a tissue or organ caused by cellular enlargement
gen
Hypoplasia
underdevelopment of a tissue or organ due to a decrease in the number of cells
gen
iasis (suffix)
a process, especially a morbid one. Amebiasis--the state of being infected with amebae.
gen
Idiopathic
occurring without known cause
gen
Imperforate
atretic; closed.
gen
Incision
an opening in the skin or an organ made by a sharp cutting object, such as a knife
gen
Indurated
abnormally hard
gen
Infra-(prefix)
beneath. Infraorbital--beneath the eye.
gen
Inter-(prefix)
between. Intercellular--between two cells.
gen
Intra-(prefix)
within. Intracellular--within cells.
gen
Ipsilateral
affecting or pertaining to the same side
gen
Jaundice
generalized yellow discoloration of tissue produced by accumulation of bilirubin in the blood; icterus.
gen
Laceration
an irregular tear in the skin produced by over-stretching
gen
Lesion
an abnormal structural and/or functional change in the body; a pathological change.
gen
Lith-(prefix)
stone. Lithotomy--removal of a stone.
gen
Macro-(prefix)
large. Macrophage--a large, mononuclear, phagocytic blood cell.
gen
Malacia
liquifactive necrosis in the central nervous system
gen
Mega-(prefix)
great. Megakaryocyte--a giant cell of the bone marrow that has a lobulated nucleus & gives rise to platelets.
gen
Melan-(prefix)
black. Melanin--black pigment of the hair, skin, choroid, retina and certain nerve cells.
gen
Mesothelium
the layer of simple squamous epithelium that covers the serous membranes of the body
gen
Metaplasia
a reversible change in which one adult cell type is replaced by another adult cell type; represents an adaptive response of a tissue to stress
gen
Micro-(prefix)
small. Microhepatia--a small liver.
gen
Morphologic diagnosis
the interpretation of the abnormalities in terms of severity, time, lesion and anatomic site.
gen
Mucous (adj.)
relating to or resembling mucous.
gen
Mucus (n.)
the glandular, free slime of the mucous membranes.
gen
Multifocal
a lesion that occurs as several focal areas
gen
Myelo-(prefix)
spinal cord
gen
Myelomalacia
softening of the spinal cord; implies necrosis
gen
Myx-(prefix)
mucus. Myxedema--mucinous edema
gen
Necr-(prefix)
death. Necrosis--the morphologic changes indicative of cell death, indicated by characteristic nuclear and cytoplasmic changes.
gen
Necropsy
examination of an animal body after death
gen
Necrosis
death of cells and tissues in the living animal
gen
Nephr-(prefix)
kidney. Nephrectomy--surgical removal of the kidney.
gen
Nodule
an elevated, spherical lesion that is usually greater than 5 mm across
gen
Oligo-(prefix)
few; scanty.
gen
Papillary
having small, nipple-shaped projections
gen
Papillary necrosis
focal areas of necrosis in the renal medulla, often at the cortico-medullary junction
gen
Para-(prefix)
beside. Parauterine--beside the uterus.
gen
Parenchyma
the essential or functional elements of an organ.
gen
Patent
open, exposed or unobstructed.
gen
Pathogenesis
the sequence of events that leads to a disease or morbid process.
gen
Pathognomonic
specially or decisively characteristic of a disease; sign that indicates with certainty that a specific disease/agent is present
gen
Pathology
the science and study of disease, especially the causes and development of abnormal conditions both gross and microscopic.
gen
Pedunculated
elevated, as on a stem (pedicle)
gen
Peri-(prefix)
around. Peribronchial--around the bronchus
gen
Phago- (prefix)
eat; devour. Phagocyte--any cell that ingests foreign material, other cells or microorganisms
gen
Pinna
the projecting part of the ear
gen
Prognosis
a prediction of the outcome of a pathological process or disease
gen
Regeneration
growth of cells and tissues to replace lost structures
gen
Reniform
shaped like a kidney
gen
Resilient
having the ability to return to an original shape after having been compressed or deformed
gen
Saponification
the hydrolysis of a fat by alkali with the formation of a soap and glycerol
gen
Serosa
any serous membrane
gen
Serpiginous
having a wavy border
gen
Serrated
having a saw-like edge
gen
Sessile
attached by a broad base
gen
Stea- (prefix)
lipid. Steatorrhea--excessive lipid in the feces
gen
Stenosis
a stricture of any canal
gen
Stoma-(prefix)
mouth.
gen
Umbilicated
marked by depressed spots resembling the umbilicus
gen
Unilateral
affecting only one side
gen
Verrucous
rough; wart-like
gen
Viscous
thick; coagulated; sticky or gummy
gen