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42 Cards in this Set

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Give some features of Crohn's Disease (3):
Skip lesions, fistulae (transmural), stricture (caused by fibrosis).
Describe ulcerative colitis.
Starts in the rectum, proximal ulceration (no skipping), pseudopolyp formation (not transmural).
List 4 routes to cirrhosis:
Alcoholism, Hepatitis, Biliary Disease, & Protein Deficiency/Starvation [listed most -> least common]
Provide 6 symptoms of cirrhosis.
Portal hypertension, Non-functional liver detoxification, Decrease vit. K & clotting factors, Androgen Deficiency, Spider nevi, & Predisposition to Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Give 6 results of portal hypertension.
Blood backs up, edema in legs, decrease in blood volume (hepatorenal syndrome), Caput Medusa, Esophageal/rectal varices.
What's the result of non-functional liver detox?
Increase in ammonia => hepatic coma => death (jaundice => dark urine also).
What's breast development from androgen deficiency called?
Gynecomastia
What color does a liver turn if necrosis is the etiology behind cirrhosis?
Cell death -> inflammation -> healing/repair => Gray liver
What color is an alcoholic's liver?
Decreased protein intake -> no lipoprotein formation -> fatty accumulation => Yellow liver
What does hepatorenal syndrome come from, and what does it cause?
Hepatorenal syndrome is a symptom of cirrhosis, and it causes ascites.
Why would someone with cirrhosis have splenomegaly?
Rerouting of blood through the splenic vein due to portal hypertension.
What pathological adaptation would be found in a cirrhotic liver?
Fibrosis nodules
Name three antigenetic markers for hepatitis.
HBe Ag, HBs Ag, & HBc Ag.
HBe Ag = ____?
Polymerase enzymes
HBs Ag = ____?
Hepatitis virus coat protein
HBc Ag = ____?
Hepatitis virus core protein
What are the three phases of hepatitis?
Acute hepatitis, convalescence, & Chronic disease (-> cirrhosis)
What other disease can hepatitis cause?
Hepatocellular carcinoma (insertion into DNA can cause cancer)
What do you call it when a goblet cell overproduces mucus when inflamed?
Mucus plug formation.
I say Blue Bloaters, you say:
Bronchitis
I say Pink Puffers, you say:
Emphysema
What COPD involves mucus plug formation?
Chronic Bronchitis
What are some clinical manifestations of Chronic Bronchitis?
Sputum; Cyanosis, Pulmonary hypertension, & Cor pulmonale (hypoxia)
What causes cyanosis?
Coughing fits => decreased oxyhemoglobin.
What can pulmonary hypertension do to the heart?
Increased workload on the right side of the heart => hypertrophy.
What do the big kids call dilation of the heart?
"Cor pulmonale"
Fibrosis as a sequela of CB => ____?
Occluding the lumen of the airway => death.
What are the two forms of emphysema?
Centrilobular & Panacinar emphysema.
Describe three aspects of Centrilobular emphysema?
1. Primarily due to smoking, 2. The most common form of emphysema, 3. Inflammation around the alveoli.
What genetic defect causes panacinar emphysema?
Genetic defect/deficiency of α1-antitrypsin (made in the liver)
Give three types of lung cancer.
1. Squamous metaplasia, 2. Small cell carcinoma, 3. Mesothelioma.
What are three forms of pneumoconiosis?
Anthracosis, Silicosis, & Asbestosis
Anthracosis is inhalation of ____?
Carbon. Requires a sufficient accumulation. Leads to lots of exudate.
Silicosis can cause damage ____?
Silicosis can cause damage intrinsically (no large accumulation necessary).
Asbestos can lead to ____?
Mesothelioma
What does ARDS stand for?
Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
What two damage locations can cause ARDS?
Damage to the endothelium of the alveoli, or the endothelium of the capillaries.
What causes ARDS?
Pneumonia.
What COPD is associated with overinflation of the lungs?
ARDS.
Peripheral carcinoma can typically result from ____?
Emphysema (doesn't metastasize quickly)
Central carcinomas are typically seen in ____?
Chronic Bronchitis (these metastasize b/c they're close to the lymph nodes).
If the pleural sac is cancerous, what's that called?
Mesothelioma