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32 Cards in this Set

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resolution
injury causing minimal tissue destruction; no residual evidence of injury is noted
best example of resolution
lobar pneumonia
crisis
form of resolution where suddenly the patient gets well and it all resolves at the same time
resolution by lysis
after severe respiratory infection; feel a little better everyday; not sudden
repari
injury caused substantial tissue destruction
regeneration
replacement of the injured tissue by cells of the same type; orderly proliferation
what does regeneration require
cell proliferation
labile
cells that have an unlimited capacity to divide; skin and GI
stable
cells that can undergo rapid division under the right stimuli and thus capable of reconstituting the tisse of origin
permanent
cells that have left the cell cycle and cannot undergo mitotic division in postnatal life
stem cells
prolonged self renewal capacity and by their asmmetric replication
types of stem cells
embryonic and adult; adult has restrictive capacity except in the bone marrow
niches
location of stem cells
oval cells
bipotential progenitor cells capable of differentiating into hepatocytes and biliary cells
what controls cell growth
contact inhibition and growth factors
competence factors
growth factors that are unable to induce DNA synthesis
progression factors
growth factors that are able to induce DNA synthesis in competent cells
molecular events in cell growth
1. binding of ligand
2. activation of growth factor receptor
3. signal transduction and second messangers
4. transcription factors
5. cyclins
functions of IL-1 and TNF
fibrogenic, induce fibroblast proliferation, chemotactic for fibroblasts, stimulate synthesis of collagen and collangenase
transcription factors
induce growth regulatory genes
epidermal growth factor
mitogenic for epithelial cells, fibroblasts and hepatocytes
platelet derived growth factor
competent factor; induces proliferation in fibroblasts, smooth muscle and monocytes
fibroblast growth factor
affinity for heparin and anionic molecules; induces angiogeneis; produced by macrophages
what makes up the ECM
structural proteins and adhesive glycoproteins embedded in a gel of proteoglycans and GAGs
when does collagen synthesis begin after an injury?
3-5 days into wound healing
What are involved in collagen degradation?
metalloproteinases; collageneases and gelatinases which remodels wounds
fibronectin
produced by fibroblasts, monocytes and endothelial cells; binds to ECM components via specific domains and to cells via integrin receptors
integrins
transmembrance glycoproteins anchoring to elements of the cytoskeleton
laminin
most abundant glycoprotein in BM; binds to cellular membrane receptors and to matrix components
most abundant GAG in ECM
hyaluronic acids
sequence of events for repair by connective tissue
1. angiogenesis
2. migration and proliferation of fibroblasts
3. deposition of ECM
4. remodeling of scar
factors influencing wound healing
nutrition, glucocorticoids, infection, foreign bodies, venous drainage and blood supply, wound dehiscence