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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the tissue types from which tumors can develop?
cartilage, fat, bone, vessel, marrow, fibrous stromal cell
What are the two most common benign bone lesions?
osteochondroma and fibrous cortical defect
What is the most common overall bone tumor?
metastasis
What are the most common malignant bone tumors?
osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma
What is the predominant demographic for a benign bone tumor? malignant?
benign: children
malignant: adult
What is the classic presentation of osteoid osteoma?
pain worse in day, cured by aspirin (prostaglandin inhibition), 50% of them occur at the knee in the femur or tibia
What causes nocturnal pain in osteoid osteoma?
release of prostaglandins
What is a nidus?
the pathologic finding in osteoid osteoma with a central lesion surrounded by peripheral sclerotic bone
How does osteoblastoma differ from osteoid osteoma?
Osteoblastoma has no surrounding sclerosis, tends to involve the spine, less frequent nocturnal pain
What ages are affected by osteosarcoma?
75% of tumors will present in patients younger than 20 yrs
What are common characteristics of osteosarcoma?
pain, elevated alkaline phosphatase, predilection for metaphyses of long bone esp knee (distal femur, proximal tibia)
What hereditary conditions predispose a patient to develop osteosarcoma?
retinoblastoma, p53 mutation
What type of bone matrix is laid down in osteosarcoma?
unmineralized (osteoid)
What site does osteosarcoma often metastasize to?
lungs
Which tumor is described as cartilage capped outgrowth attached to underlying skeleton by bony stalk that appears mushroom shaped on radiograph?
osteochondroma
What is the most common intraosseous cartilaginous tumor?
echondroma (a benign tumor of hyaline cartilage often involving distal extremities)
What age group do cartilage lesions tend to occur in?
elderly
How does chondrosarcoma differ from echondroma?
chondrosarcoma rarely involves the distal extremities
What tumor presents as lucent soap bubble appearance with a thick rind of bone growth? histologically it has a pinwheel pattern
fibrous cortical defect (non-ossifying fibroma)
What fibrous lesion presents with ground glass appearance on radiograph? it looks like irregular alphabet soup
fibrous dysplasia
What two markers can be detected in eosinophilic granuloma?
nuclear wrinkles and CD1a
What malignant small round cell tumor presents commonly in children?
Ewings Sarcoma and PNET
How can you differentiate Ewing sarcoma from lymphoma?
Ewing has prominent cytoplasmic glycogen
What is the "onion skin effect" of Ewing sarcoma?
the tumor grows through bone and lifts up the periosteum
Which tumor is actually locally aggressive despite the fact that it is a benign tumor?
Giant cell tumor (osteoclastoma)...it always affects mature bone
Name cancers that metastasize to bone in adults?
adults: prostate, breast, kidney, thyroid, lung
children: Wilms, neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing's rhabdomyosarcoma
Where do sarcomas metastasize to? carcinomas?
sarcomas: hematogenously to lungs
carcinomas: to lymph nodes
both: to bone