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71 Cards in this Set

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Teat canal=________ canal= ductus papillaris.
Streak canal
Explain the flow of milk through the mammary gland.
Produced in alveoli, comes down duct system, accumulates in gland cistern, then goes to teat cisterm--> teat canal through teat orifice
What kind of glands are the mammary glands?
Tubuloalveolar glands
_______ cell and epithelial cells comprise the tubuloalveolar glands in the mammary gland.
Myoepithelial cells-contract to squeeze out the milk
What defines the lobular and lobar (gland) units of the mammary gland?
Interstitium of collagen, fat, nerves, etc
The mammary gland is cornified epithelium down until the ________ __________.
Rosette of Furstenburg-located in the streak canal, radiates upward into gland cistern.
What promotes the duct development of the mammary glands?
Ovarian estrogens at puberty and placental estrogens during pregnancy
When is the ductal system complete in the mammary glands?
Not complete until first pregnancy
What promotes alveolar development (but not secretion)
Progesterone
Increased _______ is produced at parturition and helps with milk production and let down.
Prolactin
Milk letdown involves the _______-______ pathway.
Neural-oxytocin pathway
-Neural
How long is the peak lactation in cows? When are they dry?
Peak at 8-9 weeks
Dried at ~40 weeks
True or false. Sows continue to cycle during lactation.
False, sows DON'T, cows DO
_________ on teat skin surface and teat canal, desquamation and ___________ in keratin are some defense mechanisms of the mammary gland.
Normal flora
Bactericidal fatty acids in keratin
What is the function of the Rosette of Furstenberg?
A barrier for pathogens=defense mechanism of mammary gland
When testing the milk of a non-nursing dairy cattle, what does it mean if you have more cells than expected?
Mastitis or some kind of inflammation
Why do baby pigs sometimes get teat necrosis?
Rough flooring can rub on the teats and allow a portal of entry for bacteria
What causes udder edema in heifers?
Unknown-just happens near partirutiion and get swelling in cutis and around mammary gland
What are 2 causes of ischemic necrosis of teats?
Ergotism
Frostbite
What do you call inflammation of the nipple?
Theilitis=mammilitis
mastitis=inflammation of milk gland
What is a more common route of infection for mastitis, ascending infection or hematogenous or percutaneous?
Ascending infections far more common than hematogenous and percutaneous.
Stretococcus agalactiae is a _________ inhabitant of mammary glands.
Obligate inhabitant
True or false. Streptococcus agalactiae infections usually cause an acute outbreak of mastitis then clears up.
False, persists in lactiferous sinus with periodic excursions into small ducts
What are the signs related to streptococcus agalactiae infection of the mammary gland?
Edema, periductal fibrosis
Granulation tissue eventually results
Does Streptococcus agalactiae or Staphylococcus aureus a more serious condition? Why?
Staph aureus-can be fatal and causes more serious tissue damage, can cause necrosis, but also can cause septicemia and toxemia
What tissues are damaged by staphylococcus aureus infection of the mammary gland?
More invasive than Strep agalactiae and damages subepithelial tissues with more interstitial involvement
What are 5 possible outcomes of staphylococcus aureus infection?
1) Gangrene
2) Local necrosis
3) Abscesses
4) Botryomycosis (a chronic purulent granulomatous bacterial infection usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus)
5) Progressive fibrosis
What are the 3 possible causative agents of coliform mastitis?
1) E.coli
2) Klebsiella pneumoniae
3) Enterobacter
-All from environment-has to do w/ new production lots and lack of pasture
What is a common lesion associated with coliform mastitis?
Often fatal, gangrene common
When does coliform mastitis occur?
Periparturient disease (theoretically can invade at time of drying off)
What's the morphologic diagnosis of coliform mastitis?
Necrotic, hemorrhagic, edemic mastitis
What does the milk from a cow with coliform mastitis look like?
Watery fluid, often blood tinged
When do new infections from environmental streptococci usually result in bovine mastitis?
Usually two weeks following drying off or two weeks prior to calving
Arcanobacterium pyogenes can affect ________ or ________ glands.
Immature or dry glands
*What is different about bovine mastitis caused by mycoplasma?
Usually affects multiple quarters, also outbreaks in herds
What is a common cause of granulomatous mastitis?
Iatrogenic
-Can be Nocardia or yeasts
*What are the 2 causative agents of "blue bag" in sheep & goats (very swollen, cyanotic utters)?
Mannheimia hemolytica
Staphylococcus aureus
-Trauma important factor?
What are 3 causes of mastitis in sheep & goats?
1) "Blue bag"
-Mannheimia or Staph aureus
2) OPP (ovine progressive pneumonia) & CAEV
3) Mycoplasma agalactiae
What type of mastitis does ovine progressive pneumonia and CAEV cause?
Lymphocytic interstitial mastitis w/ slow fibrosis of gland
What kind of mastitis does mycoplasma agalactiae cause in goats?
Outbreak of systemic disease in goats
Coliform mastitis is common in _____.
Sows
True or false. Postpartum dysgalactia syndrome of sows is usually a multiglandular form of mastitis.
False, rarely multiglandular
Is a pyometra more likely to develop in an animal that has or hasn't been bred?
Has been bred
-If not bred more likely a hydrometra or mucometra
What are 2 clinical signs of postpartum dysgalactia syndrome of sows?
Decreased milk ejection
Mammary tenderness
What are 4 types of mammary hyperplasia and dysplasia?
1) Ductal ectasia (dilation) and hyperplasia
2) Fibroadenomatous hyperplasia
-Pic of cat with huge masses
3) Lobular hyperplasia
4) Dysplasia
Ductal ectasia and hyperplasia are common in _______ and sometimes form large cysts.
Dogs
Ductal ectasia and hyperplasia is a _______ responsive process.
Hormonal
What animals are usually affected by fibroadenomatous hyperplasia? What can cause it in other animals?
Usually young intact females
OR iatrogenic
-Watch for in young queens in spring, dang hormones!
Lobular hyperplasia looks like ________ ________ tissue.
Active secretory
-Pre-neoplastic change?
Mammary dysplasia is a common change in association with _______, adjacent areas of ________ or ________. Concurrent increase in collagen content is common.
Blocked ducts, adjacent areas of neoplasia or hyperplasia (fibrocystic disease)
Canine mammary neoplasia is rare in males, but when it does it occur it's usually associated with __________.
Sertoli cell tumors
________ decreases odds of mammary carcinoma.
Early ovariectomy, later still gives some protection against benign neoplasms
Prolonged use of __________ mildly increases risk of benign mammary neoplasms and certain high-dose combinations promote malignancies.
Synthetic hormones
What needs to be included in a biopsy to determine if mammary neoplasia is present or not?
Interface b/w normal and abnormal tissue
True or false. Receptors for estrogen, progesterone, epidermal growth factor and growth hormones are all present in normal mammary tissue.
True
______ are nearly twice as likely to develop mammary cancer.
Purebreds
-Lower risk for collie and boxers
True or false. Most cases of mastitis are solitary masses.
False, over 50% of cases involve multiple masses.
True or false. Cytology is a poor tool to determine if a canine mammary neoplasia is malignant or benign.
True
What do pathologists look at to determine if a canine mammary neoplasia is malignant or benign?
Is there an invasive pattern of growth*?
Encapsulation?
Vascular invasion?
Anaplasia?
*What is your prognosis if a mammary neoplasia is > 5cm and invasive?
only 1 year max =not good!
What are 4 benign canine mammary tumors?
1) Adenomas
-Multiple subtypes
2) Fibroadenoma
3) Mixed mammary tumors
4) Ductal papilloma
What is a mixed mammary tumor?
Proliferation of epithelial and myoeptihelial cells develop cartilage
Are complex carcinomas (have myoepithelial proliferation) simple carcinomas more common malignant epithelial tumors?
Simple is more common, which is less common than special carcinomas (SC, mucinous carcinoma etc)
What are 2 examples of malignant mesenchymal tumors that can form in the canine mammary gland?
Fibrosarcoma
Osteosarcoma
What should you check for on your exam of a dog that has a mammary mass?
Check the draining lymph nodes
Where do the lymphatics from the caudal mammary glands drain to? Cranial pair? Middle?
Caudal=inguinal area
Cranial=axillary lnn.
-middles typically go forward..
About _____% of feline mammary neoplasia are malignant.
90%!
If you catch a feline mammary neoplasia early (<2cm) what is life expectancy? If you catch it when >3 cm?
<2cm= a 4 year median survival
>3 cm=6 months
True or false. Mixed mammary tissues are common in cats.
False, rare in cats
-Adenocarcinomas and simple carcinomas are common
You go out and milk the cow and the milk is watery with a blood tinge, what's high on your differentials?
Coliform mastitis
You examine a cow that has mastitis with immature glands, what's high on your differentials?
Arcanobacterium pyogenes