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51 Cards in this Set

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Koch's postulate #1:

Organism is regularly found in ____ associated with disease.
physical manifestation of disease
Koch's postulate #2:

Organism can be isolated in __ ___, which determines that the infection is NOT ___.
pure culture, mixed (i.e. that the infection is caused by the suspected agent, not something else)
what would determine that the infection is caused by the suspected agent, and not something else?
Koch's postulate #3:

___ of cultured organism causes ___ in animal models
Inoculation, disease
Organism is ___ from ___ in animals inoculated with the organism.
recovered, lesions
what would prove organism is causing the same disease in an inoculated animal?
Bacterial virulence factors are encoded by mobile genetic elements such as (3):
bacteriophages, plasmids, transposons
how resistance genes are spread
A fungus that looks and acts like a parasite
Pneumocystis jiroveci (carinii)
Resemble bacteria but have no ATP synthesis
Chlamydophila pneumoniae, psittaci, trachomatis
Causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and is deadly because:

deadly because it is an obligate intracellular bacteria of endothelium and smooth muscle cells
The 3 reasons that skin is a good barrier to infection
1. dense, keratinized outer layer
2. Low pH
3. Presence of fatty acids, which are toxic to many bacteria
Pus and space is occupies causes necrosis
Damage results from fibrosis and scarring
Chronic inflammation
Damage is from necrosis, mineralization and scarring
Granulomatous inflammation
Apoptosis due to immune response to certain viruses
Necrosis without inflammation
Disseminated intravascular coagulation can be caused by:
LPS on gram (-) bacteria cause simultaneous clotting and bleeding and subsequent consumption of coagulation factors
Obstruction of blood vessels can be caused by:
Fungi-break through smooth muscle cells of blood vessels, spread and can cause thrombosis
Obstruction of lymphatics can be caused by:
Obstruction of intestinal lumen can be caused by:
Obstruction of biliary and pancreatic ducts can be caused by:
Clonorchis sinensis, from eating raw fish in Far East
3 organisms that can cause asphyxiation
Haemophilus, Diptheria, Pneumonia
What is the difference between Antigenic drift and Antigenic shift?
drift is slow and subtle change in surface Ag

shift is sudden and major change in surface Ag-->causes pandemics b/c no immunity
You should see __ neutrophil for every 1000 RBCs. If you see more than this, then the condition is called:
1, neutrophilia
Blue chunks present in neutrophils indicate ___ ____ due to what:
Toxic granulation, due to neutrophils producing killing mechanisms in high gear
In this condition, you will see distended blood vessels on the bladder, and microscopically, both acute and chronic inflammation:
Acute cystitis
Pain in the costovertebral angle due to hemotoginously delivered bacteria can cause:
Acute Pyelonephritis = acute inflammation in the renal tubules causing renal capsule to stretch
On a gram stain, you see purple, lancet-shaped, encapsulated diplococci and neutrophils that fill the alveolar spaces
Streptococcus pnuemoniae causing Lobar pnuemonia
Caused by bacteria infiltrating blood stream due to Rheumatic fever or a bicuspid aortic valve, this condition is characterized by thrombi forming in response to endothelial damage by bacteria , and the bacteria continuing to grow within the thrombi
Infective endocarditis
Intracellular bacteria are found within:
neutrophils, due to bacteremia
Black, necrotic lesions in gray matter of temporal and frontal regions of the brain are caused by what and is called:
Herpes Simplex virus, HSV encephalitis
A ring of mononuclear cells around a blood vessel caused by HSV encephalitis
perivascular cuffing
A broad-based budding yeast at body temperature and found in the soil
Blastomyces dermatitidis
Characterized by 30-80 micron Spherules containing endospores
Coccidioides immitis
a ubiquitous, Pleomorphic, usually encapsulated yeast that causes meningitis
Cryptococcus neoformans
An intracelluar (usually neutrophils), small (2-4 micron) yeast
Histoplasma capsulatum
India ink preparation is used to detect ___, which can often be confused with a white cell
A fungus characterized by morphology similar to a Mariner's wheel
Paracoccidioides brasilensis
A fungus characterized by elongated yeast cells (cigar bodies) and the splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon (sunburst appearance)
Sporothrix schenkii
If acute inflammation is ineffective, the next form of inflammation employed is:
Mononuclear inflammation
If Mononuclear inflammation is ineffective, the next form of inflammation employed is:
Granulomatous inflammation
Exudate composed mainly of edema, hemorrhage, and fibrin with little to no inflammation
Acelluar (Inert, Paucireactive) Inflammation
Causes Tinea Versicolor
Malessezia furfur
Lipid-loving fungus with spaghetti and meatballs appearance under microscope
Malessezia furfur
Damage to individual host cells with little or no inflammatory response, and is characteristic of certain viral infections
Cytopathic-Cytoproliferative Inflammation
Epithelial cell hyperplasia (as in poxvirus/molluscum contagiosum)or dysplastic changes and neoplasia of epithelial cells and lymphoid cells (as in HPV and EBV) characterizes:
Cytopathic-cytoproliferative inflammation
Giant cells made of fused epithelial cells characterize:
Measles Giant Cell Pneumonia
A volcanic-like lesion with viral inclusions spilling out
Molluscum Contagiosum
Meningococcemia attacking the adrenal glands, causing widespread hemorrhage and necrosis, and eventual adrenal insufficiency and death
Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome in Meningococcemia
Meningococcemia is most often caused by this gram (-), biscuit shaped diplococcus
Neisseria meninigtidis
Large, box-car shaped bacilli causing toxin-induced necrotizing inflammation
Bacillus anthracis, Clostridum perfinigens, tetanii & botulinim
Characterized by indentation of cytoplasm by RBC's and a small rim of cytoplasm around the nucleus
Atypical lymphocytes due to EBV
Mononuclear inflammation responding to disease of interstitum, alveolar capillaries, and walls, with pseudomembranes lining alveolar surface
Viral pneumonia/pneumonitis caused by mycoplasmal or chlamydial pneumonia
A cell with an owl's eye appearance due to nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions is due to:
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)