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8 Cards in this Set

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What are the main routes of invasion by malignant neoplasms?
seeding w/in body cavities (eg may glaze all peritoneal surfaces), lymphatic spread, hematogenous spread
What class of tumors typically metastasize via lymphatic spread?
carcinomas
What class of tumors typically metastasize via hematogenic spread?
sarcomas
What are some notable exceptions (carcinomas that spread via blood vessels)?
renal cell and hepatocellular carcinomas (marked by early venous invasion and hematogenous dissemination)
What is HEMATOGENOUS DISSEMINATION?
widespread blood-borne dissemination of neoplastic cells
What are the most common secondary sites of hematogenous dissemination?
lungs and liver
What does MONOCLONALITY mean?
originates from a single precursor cell

*most neoplasms are monoclonal; polyclonal proliferations are almost always non-neoplastic*
How are G6PD ISOENZYME STUDIES used to assess monoclonality of tumors?
in females who are heterozygous for this marker, cells randomly express one of two G6PD isoenzymes; monoclonal tumors express only one of the isoenzymes, polyclonal cellular proliferations exhibit both isoenzymes