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25 Cards in this Set

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What kind of immunity dominates acute inflammation? What cells are most prominent?
*Innate immunity
*Neutrophils
What kind of immunity dominates chronic inflammation What cell types are most prominent?
*cell-mediated immunity
*mononuclear cells (lymphs, plasma cells, monos)
Which has a more prominant vascular response - chronic or acute inflammation?
Acute inflammation
Name 3 causes of acute inflammation.
1. Microbial infection
2. Tissue necrosis
3. Physical agents (heat, cold, trauma)
4. Chemical irritants
5. Immune-mediated hypersensivity
Name 3 causes of chronic inflammation.
1. Persistent tissue injury
2. Resistant microorganisms
3. Foreign bodies
4. Autoimmune disorders
5. Primary granulomatous disease
Name 3 outcomes of inflammation.
1. Abscess
2. Persistent inflammation
3. Resolution
4. Fibrosis
What are the four signs of acute inflammation listed by Celsus?
1. Rubor - redness
2. Tumor - swelling
3. Calor - heat
4. Dolor - pain
One of the major manifestations of acute inflammation is its effects on vasculature. What are these effects?
*arteriolar dilation
*increased pressure in arterioles and veins
*increased permeability
*decreased oncotic pressure due to protein leakage
*extravasation of fluid
What is the difference between effusion and edema?
*edema: fluid in extravascular compartment and interstitium
*effusion: fluid in body cavities
Name one way that vascular permeability increases in acute inflammation.
Endothelial cells contract to allow gaps.
What is transudate? What is its specific gravity?
*Edema fluid with a low protein count
*<1.015
What is exudate? What is its specific gravity?
*edema fluid with a high protein count
*>1.015
There are three kinds of exudate - what are they?
1. Serous exudate - acellular
2. Fibrinous exudate - high fibrin content
3. Purulent exudate - high cell content
Suppurative inflammation features purulent exudate with ________.
liquefactive necrosis (pus)
What are two actions of plasmin?
1. Induces fibrinolysis
2. Activates complement
Name three cell-derived mediators of edema.
1. Arachidonic acid metabolites
2. Platelet activating factor
3. serotonin
4. histamine
5. prostacyclin
What occurs in the second phase of acute inflammation?
accumulation of leukocytes
What are the 4 steps of inflammatory cell recruitment?
1.Margination
2.Adherence
3.Emigration
4.Chemotaxis or haptotaxis
The initial recruitment of what cell type is dependent on the presence of chemotaxins C5a and LTB4?
Neutrophils
Name two molecules that allow adhesion of inflammatory cells to vascular endothelium.
1.B2-integrins
2.ICAM-1
What is the difference between haptotaxis and chemotaxis?
Haptotaxis involves migration along a fixed insoluble chemokine gradient.
What are the main bacteriocidal substances inside neutrophils?
Activated oxygen species (superoxide anion, H2O2, other radicals)
Name two diseases caused in part by acute inflammation.
*rheumatoid arthritis
*emphysema
T/F:
Acute and chronic inflammation are usually mutually exclusive.
False: The time frames of chronic and acute inflammation usually overlap.
What respiratory bacterial pathogen frequently causes chronic inflammation?
Mycobacterium (TB)