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125 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Severe Vit A deficiency. See Bitot’s spots in the eyes = gray plaques = thickened, keratinized ET
Metabisfite Test
Suspending RBCs in a low O2 content solution
294. Can detect Hemoglobin S, which sickles in low O2
Microangiopathic Hemolytic
Can be due to Hemolyitc Uremic Syndrome & Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)
296. See Helmet cells
Wright’s stain
Stain for Burkitt’s lymphoma
Due to EBV infeciton
299. If Mono is treated w/ Ampicillin, thinking that it is a strep pharyngitis, a rash will occur.
Burkitt’s lymphoma = c-myc oncogene overexpression
CML = c-abl/bcr gene formation = Philadelphia translocation
Langerhan Cell Histiocytosis
Letter Siwe syndrome; Hand Schuller Christian Disease; Eosinophilic Granuloma
303. Birbeck granules are present = tennis racket shape
Myeloid Metaplasia
Alkaline phosphatase ↑/normal compare to CML = low to absent
305. Anemia; splenomegaly; platelets > 1 million = extensive extra-medullary hematopoiesis
Multiple Myeloma
306. Weakness; wt. loss; recurrent infection; proteinuria; anemia; ↑ proliferation of plasma cells in BM
= plasma cell dx
307. Serum M protein spike – most often of IgG or IgA
308. Hypercalcemia (↑ bone destruction)
NH Lymphoma = bcl2 proto-oncogene overexpression seen w/ Small Cleaved Cell (FOLLICULAR)
Focal Segmental GN exs
IgA Focal GN = Berger’s disease; SLE; PAN; Schonlein-Henoch purpura (anaphylactoid purpura)
Nephrotic Syndrome exs
Focal (Segmental) GN; Membranous GN; Lipoid (Minimal Change) GN; Membranoproliferative GN;
Hep B; Syphilis; Penicillamine
Schistosoma Haematobium
Infection is assocaited w/ Squamous cell CA of the Bladder (most common Bladder CA is
transitional cell type)
313. Associated w/ portal HTN due to intrahepatic obstruction
Penicillin Resistant PID
PID is usually due to N. Gonorrhoeae, but if unresponsive to penicillin think of Bacteroides
Duret Hemorrhages
Severe ↑ in ICP w/ downward diplacement of cerebellar tonsils into Foramen Magnum causing a
compression on the brainstem w/ hemorrhaging into the pons & midbrain
316. Nearly always associated w/ death due to damage to the vital centers in these areas
Hypertensive Hemorrhage
Predilection for lenticulostriate arteries = putamen & internal capsule hemorrhages
Cerebral Embolism from
MI w/ Mural Thrombi; Atrial Fib Thrombi = Marantic thrombi; L-sided Bacterial Endocarditis;
Paradoxical Embolism of septal defect
Tabes Dorsalis = ↓ joint position sensation, ↓ pain sensation, ataxia, Argyl Robertson pupils
320. Syphilitic meningitis
321. Paretic neurosyphilis
Cri di Chat: mental retardation; small head; wide set eyes; low set ears; cat-like cry
Trisomy 13
Patau’s: small head & eyes; cleft lip & palate; many fingers
Acute Cold Agglutinaiton
Abs to I blood group Ag. Mediated by IgM Abs
325. Complication of EBV or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections
Chronic Cold Agglutinaiton
Associated w/lymphoid neoplasms. See agglutination & hemolysis in tissue exposed to cold. IgM
RBC Osmotic Fragility
Hereditary Spherocytosis
Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas
Small Lymphocytic: low grade B cell lymphoma of the elderly. Related to CLL.
329. Small Cleaved cell (Follicualr): low grade B cell lymphoma of the elderly. T(14;18) bcl-2 oncogene
330. Large Cell
331. Lymphoblastic: high grade T cell lymphoma of kids progressing to T-ALL
332. SMALL NON CLEAVED = Burkitt’s: high grade B cell lymphoma. EBV infection. Starry sky histo
appearance. T(8;14) c-myc proto-oncogene. Related to B-ALL
Singer’s Nodules
Benign laryngeal polyps associated w/ smoking & overuse of the voice
Paraseptal emphysema
Associated w/ blebs (large subpleural bullae) that can rupture and cause pneumothorax
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
Obstructed due to bronchogenic carcinoma. Causing swollen face & cyanosis.
Betel nuts
Associated to oral cancer.
Fundal (Type A) Gastritis
Antibodies to parietal cells; pernicious anemia; autoimmune diseases
Antral (Type B) Gastritis
Associated w/ Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori infection. 90% of duodenal ulcer
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
Autoimmune origin; middle aged women; anti-mitochondrial Abs
340. Jaundice; itching; hypercholesterolemia (can see cutaneous xanthomas)
Acute Pancreatitis
↑ pancreatic enzymes = fat necrosis; sapponification = hypocalcemia; ↑ serum amylase
342. Severe epigastric ab pain; prostration; radiation to the back
Radiating Back Pain
Chronic pancreatitis
Complete Hydatidiform Mole
No embryo. Paternal derivation only. 46XX
Partial Hydatidiform Mole
Embryo. 2 or more sprems fertilized 1 ovum: triploidy/tetraploidy occurs
Cold Nodules
Hypoplastic Goiter nodules that do not take up radio active iodine. [Opposite: hot & do take up
Mammotrophs = Prolactin
348. Somatotrophs = GH
Thyrotrophs = TSH
350. Gonadotrophs = LH
351. Corticotrophs = ACTH & FSH
Lacunar Strokes
Small/focal aa occlusions. Purely motor or sensory.
353. Sensory: lesion of thalamus
354. Motor: lesion of internal capsule
CSF of Bacterial Meningitis
↓ Glucose; ↑ Protein; ↑ Neutrophils; ↑ Pressure
CSF of Viral Meningitis
Normal Glucose; +/-↑ Protein; ↑ Lymphocytes
Marble Bone Disease
Osteoporosis: Albers-Schonberd Disease = inspite of ↑d bone density, many fractures = ↓
Involved in Chemotaxis (for Neutrophils)
Involved in Opsonization (& IgG)
C3a & C5a (mediate Histamine release from Basophils & Mast cells)
Vasoactive Mediators
Vasoconstriction: TxA2; LTC4; LTD4; LTE4; PAF
362. Vasodilation: PGI2; PGD2; PGE2; PGF2α; Bradykinin; PAF
363. ↑d Vascular Permeability: Hist.; 5HT; PGD2; PGE2; PGF2α; LTC4; LTD4; LTE4; Bradykinin; PAF
Platelet Aggregation
ADP; Thrombin; TxA2; collagen; Epinephrine; PAF
Platelet Antagonist
Prostacyclin (PGI2)
Intrinsic Pathway
F XII (Hagman): APTT
Extrinsic Pathway
Lines of Zahn
Aterial thrombi = pale red colored (dark red is venous thrombi)
Specific gravity < 1.012 – low protein
Specific gravity > 1.020 – high protein
Lysosomal storage disease α L Iduronidase – Heparan/Dermatan Sulfate accumulation
Deficiency of Galactose 1 Phosphate Uridyl Transferase. ↑ Galactose 1 Phosphate
Deficiency: Phenylalanine Hydroxylase. ↑ Phenyalanine & degradation products
381. Mousy body odor
Autosomal Dominant Diseases
Adult Poly Cystic Kidney Disease
383. Familial Hypercholestrolemia Disease
384. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telengectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu)
385. Hereditary Spherocytosis
386. Huntington’s Disease (chromosome 4p)
387. Marfan’s Syndrome
388. Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen’s)
389. Tuberous Sclerosis
390. Von Hippel Lindau Disease
Autosomal Recessive Diseases
392. Gaucher’s
393. Niemann-Pick
394. Hurler’s
395. Von Gierke’s
396. Pompe’s
397. Cori’s
398. McArdle’s
399. Galactosemia
400. PKU
401. Alcaptonuria
X Linked Recessive Diseases
Hunter’s Syndrome (L-Iduronosulfate Sulfatase deficincy, ↑ Heparan/Dermatan Sulfate)
403. Fabry’s Disease (α Galactosidase A deficiency, ↑ Ceremide Trihexoside)
404. Classic Hemophilia A (Factor VIII deficiency, F8 Gene on X chromosome is bad, ↑ Ceremide Trihexoside)
405. Lisch-Nyhan Syndrome (HGPRT deficiency, ↑ Uric acid)
406. G6Phosphatase deficiency (G6PDH deficiency, ↑ Ceremide trihexoside)
407. Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy (Dystrophin deficinecy, ↑ Ceremide Trihexoside)
Hypersensitivity Reactions
Type I (Anaphylactic): IgE mediated. Exs: Hay Fever; Allergic asthma; Hives
409. Type II (Cytotoxic): Warm Ab autoimmune hemolytic anemia; hemolytic transfusion reactions;
Erythroblastosis Fetalis; Grave’s Disease; Goodpastures
410. Type III (Immune Complex): Insoluble complement bound aggregates of Ag-Ab complexes. Exs:
Serum sickness; Arthus Reaction; Polyarteritis Nodosa; SLE; Immune Complex Mediated
Glomerular Disease
411. Type IV (Delayed = Cell mediated immunity): Delayed hypersensitivity. Involves memory cells.
Exs: Tuberculin reaction; Contact dermatitis; Tumor cell killing; Virally infected cell killing
Transplant Rejections
Hyperacute Rejection = occurs w/in minutes of transplant. Ab mediated.
413. Acute Rejection = occurs w/in days to months of transplant. Lymphocytes & macrophages. Only
rejection type that can be treated w/ therapy.
414. Chronic Rejection = occurs months to years of transplant. Ab mediates vascular damage.
Blood Metastasis
Sarcoma, exception – renal cell CA: early venous invasion
Lymph Metastasis
Carcinoma, exception – renal cell CA: early venous invasion
Seen w/ Aspergillus. ↑ risk for Hepatocellular CA
Cleft Lip
Incomplete fusion of maxillary prominence w/ median nasal prominence
Cleft Palate
Incomplete fusion of lateral palatine process w/ each other & median nasal prominence & medial
palatine prominence
Pituitary tumor - usually calcified
Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
Inolved in Vision relay
Medial Geniculate Body
Involved in Hearing relay
Lung Development
Glandular: 5-17 fetal weeks
Canalicular 13-25 fetal weeks
Terminal Sac 24 weeks to birth
Alveolar period birth-8yoa
Heart’s 1st Beat
21-22 days
Mouth toMidgut Common Bile Duct - supplied by Celiac Artery
Duodenum, just below Common Bile Duct  Splenic flexure of the Colon supplied by Superior
Mesenteric artery
Splenic Flexure to Butt crack supplied by Inferior Mesenteric Artery
Hypnagogic Hallucinaitons
Type I Error
α: “Convicting the innocent” – accepting experimental hypothesis/rejecting null hypothesis
Subdural Hematoma
Ruptured cerebral bridging veins
Epidural Hematoma
Ruptured middle meningeal artery “intervals of lucidness”, 2ry to Temporal bone fracture
Type II Error
β: “Setting the guilty free” – fail to reject the null hypotesis when it was false
cannot be measured by P-value
1 - β
Disorder of thought content
Loose Association
Skip from topic to topic
5 Stages of Death
Denial – Anger – Bargaining – Depression – Acceptance
1st Branchial Arch
Meckel’s cartillage – gives rise to incus/malleus bones of ear
2nd Branchial Arch
Reichert’s cartillage – gives rise to stapes bone of ear
Median nerve lesion
No pronation
Radial nerve lesion
Wrist drop – seen w/ humerus fracture
Common peroneal lesion
Foot drop. No dorsiflexion or eversion of the foot
Direct inguinal hernia
Goes through superficial inguinal ring.
Medial to inferior epigastric artery
Seen in older men
Indirect inguinal hernia
Goes through deep & superficial inguinal ring
Lateral to inferior epigastric artery
Seen in young boys – processus vaginalis did not close
@ Diaphragm T8, T10, T12
T8 = Inferior vena cava
T10 = Esophagus/ Vagus
T12 = Aorta/ Thoracic duct/ Azygous vein
Wild flailing of 1 arm. Lesion of the sub thalamic nucleus
O Linked Oligosaccharide
In the Golgi
N Linked Oligosaccharide
In the RER
MLF Syndrome
Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia: medial rectus palsy on lateral gaze; Nystagmus on abducting eye.
Seen w/ MS
ADA Deficiency
Raphe Nucleus
Initiation of sleep via 5HT predominance
β waves
Alert; Awake; Active mind – also seen in REM, therefore we say “paradoxical sleep”
Irreversible Glycolysis Enzymes
PhosphoFructo Kinase = Rate Limiting Step
Pyruvate Kinase
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
Irreversible Gluconeogenesis
PyruvateCarboxy Kinase
Fructose 1,6 BiPhosphatase
Glucose 6 Phosphatase
**muscle dose not take part in Gluconeogenesis, only takes place in the liver, kidney & GI epithelium
Diarrhea, Dermatitis, Dementia
Niacin Deficiency (Vit B3 deficiency)
Hartnup’s Disease
Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome
INH use
Needed as co-factor for Pyruvate DH complex & α Ketoglutarate DH complex
Esterification of cholesterol: lecithin cholesterol acetyltransferase
Lecithin = Phosphatidylcholine, therefore phosphotidylcholine acetyltransferase
HMGCoA Reductase
Rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis
Changes HMGCoA  Mevalonate
(-) by Lovastatin
Ketogenic amino acids
Leucine & Lysine
Glucogenic amino acids
Methionine, Threonine, Valine, Arginine, Histadine
Keto & Gluco amino acids
Phenylalanine, Trytophan, Isoleucine
Carnitine Shuttle
Feeds FA into the mitochondria for their consumption
Cori Cycle
Keeps muscles working anaerobically.
Transfers lactate to the liver to make glucose which is sent back into the muscles for energy use
(-) Na+ Pump (ATPase)
Ouabain [(-) K+ pump]
Vanadate [(-) phosphorylation]
Digoxin [↑ heart contractility]
TCA Cycle Products
“Citric Acid Is Krebs Starting Substrate For Mitochondrial Oxidation”
Citrate  Aconitate  Isocitrate  α Ketoglutarate  Succinyl  Succinate  Fumarate 
Malate OAA
Color vision. Contain Iodopsin = Red-Blue-Green specific pigment. For acuity.
Contain Rhodopsin pigment. High sensitivity. Concentrated in the fovea. Night vision.
Seen @ 3rd week: Ecto, Meso & Endo
@ 2nd week: forms the primitive streak, from which Meso & Endo come from. Directly gives rise to
Sydenham’s Chorea
Post streptococcal infection. Necrotizing arteritis of the caudate, putamen, thalamus
(+) Frei Test
Chlamydia trachomatis types L1, L2, L3 = Lymphogranuloma venereum
Sabouraud’s Agar
Culture for all Fungi ie…Culture Cryptococcus neofromans which is found in pigeon droppings
Barr Body
Present in Kleinfelters: Male: XXY
Not present in Turner’s: Female: XO
Aortic Insufficiency Signs
Traube Sign = Pistol shot sound over the femoral vessels
Corrigan pulse = water hammer pulse over coratid artery = aortic regurgitation
Scleroderma :”CREST”
Calcinosis; Raynauds; Esophageal; Sclerodactyl; Telangiectasis
Sporadic: bad T4 phosphorylation or developmental failure of thyroid formation
Endemic: no Iodine in diet: protruding belly & belly button
Hemochromatosis Triad
Micronodular pigment cirrhosis; Bronze Diabetes; Skin pigmentation = due to ↑ Fe3+ deposition