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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is hydropic swelling? What are the morphological characteristics?
An increase in cell volume characterized by a large, pale cytoplasm and a normally located nucleus.
Hydropic swelling is completely reversible if the cause is removed.
Where is the cell does fluid preferntially accumulate in hydropic swelling?
In the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum.
What are the 3 levels of intracellular Na+ and volume regulation?
1. Plasma membrane
2. Membrane sodium pump
3. Supply of ATP
What are three ways an agent can interfere with membrane regulation of Na+ concentration?
1. Increase permeability of membrane to Na+
2. Damage pump directly
3. Interfere with supply of ATP
Does an increase or decrease in intracellular [Na+] cause the cell to swell?
An increase.
What are two ultrastructural changes that can occur to the ER in reversible cell damage?
1. Distension by fluid accumulation
2. Disaggregation of membrane-bound ribosomes
What is the typical effect of ischemia on mitochondria?
Detachment of blebs from the plsma membrane causes a loss of cell viability.
False: This usually does not involve loss of cell viability.
Name the 6 major adaptive response a cell may have to persistent stress.
1. Atrophy
2. hypertrophy
3. Hyperplasia
4. Metaplasia
5. Dysplasia
6. Intracelllular storage
What is the basic definition of atrophy?
A decrease in the size and function of a cell.
Name 6 common causes of atrophy in cells.
1. Reduced functional demand
2. Inadequate supply of O2
3. Insufficient nutrients
4. Interruption of trophic signals
5. Persistent cell injury
6. Aging
What is the most common cause of persistent cell injury?
Chronic inflammation associated with prolonged viral or bacterial infection.
What is the basic definition for hypertrophy?
An increase in the size of a cell accompanied by an augmentes functional capacity.
Name two causes of hypertrophy.
1. In response to hormones
2. Due to increased functional demand
What is the basic definition of hyperplasia?
An increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue.
What are three causes of hyperplasia?
1. hormonal stimulation
2. increased functional demand
3. persistent cell injury
What is the basic definition of metaplasia? What is the most common sequence of metaplasia?
*The conversion of one differentiated cell type to another
*replacement of glandular epithelium by squamous
What is the basic definion of dysplasia?
An alteration in the size, shape, and organization of the cellular components of a tissue.
What makes dysplasia particularly ominous?
It typically represents a preneoplastic lesion.
What is anthracosis?
The storage of carbon particles in the lung and regional lymph nodes.
List the five main types of necrosis.
1. Coagulative
2. Liquefactive
3. Fat
4. Caseous
5. Fibrinoid
Describe three morphological changes seen in the nucleus during coagulative necrosis.
1. Pyknosis - nucleus shrinks and becomes basophilic
2. Karyorrhexis - nucleus fragments and scatters
3. Karyolysis - nucleus is extruded
What occurs in liuefactive necrosis?
Necrotic cells are digested into a liguid viscous mass.
In what organ does fat necrosis often occur?
Describe the gross appearance of fat necrosis.
An irregular, chalky white area embedded in otherwise normal adipose tissue.
With what disease is caseous necrosis typically associated?
Cells that are killed by coagulative necrosis retain their cellular outlines.