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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Most common cause of abdominal aortic aneurysm
Atherosclerosis (Often associated with mutation in LDL receptor in familial hypercholesterolemia)
Sudden onset of excruciating substernal pain, often confused with myocardial infarction
Dissecting aortic aneurysm (Caused by cystic medial necrosis, more common in Marfan syndrome)
Vasculitis of the elderly, presenting as headache, facial pain, and/or impaired vision
Giant cell (temporal) arteritis (Most common vasculitis, affecting branches of the carotid artery)
Vast majority of cases are idiopathic, although they may also be secondary to renal disease
Hypertension (Other secondary causes include primary hyperaldosteronism, Cushing syndrome, and pheochromocytoma)
Rapidly precipitating hypertension in an African American male with papilledema and retinal hemorrhages
Malignant hypertension (Histologically characterized by hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis or "onion-skin" thickening of arterial walls)
Pallor or cyanosis of fingers and toes caused by recurrent vasospasm of arterioles, often in young, healthy women
Raynaud disease (Reaction to cold or emotion)
Vasculitis primarily affecting the tibial and radial arteries
Buerger disease (Thromboangiitis obliterans - Associated with cigarette smoking)
Concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle
Aortic stenosis or Hypertensive heart disease (Occurs in response to left ventricular pressure overload)
Congenital abnormality predisposing to calcific aortic stenosis
Bicuspid aortic valve
Right heart failure due to intrinsic lung disease or primary disease of pulmonary vasculature
Chronic cor pulmonale
Upper extremity hypertension with lower extremity hypotension
Coarctation of the aorta (postductal - Can radiologically detect notching of the ribs caused by enlargement of intercostal and internal mammary arteries
Associated with cocaine abuse, alcohol abuse, and pregnancy; can also be idiopathic
Dilated cardiomyopathy (Heart may be 3 times heavier than normal with dilation of all four chambers
Haphazard disarray of cardiac myofibrils
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (Autosomal dominant mutation in the beta-myosin heavy chain gene)
Bulky, friable, nonsterile vegetations with the potential to embolize
Infective (bacterial) endocarditis (Often caused by Streptococcus viridans infection of mitral valve, or Staphylococcus aureus infection of tricuspid valve in IV drug abusers
Dyspnea, orthopnea, and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea caused by congestion of the lungs
Left heart failure
Midsystolic click followed by a late systolic murmur
Mitral Valve prolapse (Most common valvular heart disease in the US, especially in young women; also associated with Marfan syndrome)
Crushing or squeezing, substernal pain radiating down the left arm
Myocardial infarction (Serum findings include eleveated cardiac Troponins, CK-MB, and LDH
Causes include Coxsackie virusess A and B and Trypanosoma cruzi
Ball valve obstruction by left atrial mass
Myxoma (Most common primary tumor of the heart in adults)
Friable, sterile emboli caused by hypercoagulable states
Nonbacterial thrombotic (marantic) endocarditis (Associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation and adenocarcinoma of the pancreas)
Harsh waxing and waning murmur (machinery murmur)
Patent ductus arterious (Closed with indomethacin administration, which decreases prostaglandin E levels)
Friction rub
Pericarditis (Causes include infections, rheumatic fever, myocardial infarction, uremia, and recent surgery)
Associated with cardiac amyloidosis, radiation injury, and sarcoidosis
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (Manifests as decreased ventricular filling owing to reduced ventricular compliance)
Migratory polyarthritis, erythema marginatum, subcutaneous nodules, Sydenham chorea, and pancarditis
Rheumatic fever (Aschoff bodies in the myocardium are pathognomonic)
Sequela of acute rheumatic fever
Rheumatic heart disease ("Fish mouth" deformity from fusion of commissures; most common in mitral stenosis, next most common is mitral and aortic stenosis)
Peripheral edema, splenomegaly, and nutmeg liver
Right heart failure
Precordial pain on extertion or increased cardiac workload, but relieved by rest
Stable angina (Caused by decreased coronary artery flow from atherosclerotic narrowing)
Right to left shunts
Tetralogy of Fallot (most common), transposition of the great vessels, and persistent truncus arteriosus (Eary cyanosis)
Prolonged or recurrent chest pain with increasing frequency, often at rest
Unstable (Crescendo, Preinfarction) angina (Harbinger of myocardial infarction)
Most common congenital heart defect
Ventricular septal defect (May require surgical correction at birth or, if small, may close spontaneously)