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85 Cards in this Set

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Chromatolysis
the dissolution ir disintegration of chromophil material, such as chromatin, within a cell
Cholesteatomas
Firm nodules with cholesterol crystals and granulomatous inflammatory tissues; often seen in old horses; may block the flow of CSF
Organogenesis
the formation and development of the organs of living things
Microencephaly
condition of having an abnormally small brain
Myeloschisis
cleft spinal cord resulting from failure of the neural folds to close normally in the formation of the neural tube; post neural tube failure; "schisis" means cleft
Arthrogryposis
permanent fixation of a joint in contracted position; can be caused by rpegnant cow ingesting plants such as hemlock or lupine
Gitter cells
an enlarged phagocytic cell of microglial origin having the cytoplasm distended with lipid granules and being charactersitic of some organic brain lesions
Astrogliosis
hypertrophy of the astroglia, usually in response to injury; astroglia are also known as astrocytes, and are neuroglial cells with fibrous or protoplasmic processes
Astrocytosis
anabnormal increase in the number of astrocytes due to the destruction of nearby neurons, typically becaus eof hypoglycemia or oxygen deprivation
Polydiculoneuritis
inflammation of many nerve roots and peripheral nerves
Polymyositis
inflammation of several voluntary muscles simultaneously
Hydrocephalus
increased accumulation of CSF either solely in the ventricular system (noncommunicating) of within the ventricular and the subarachnoid space (communicating); ono-communicating is more common
Acquired non-communicating hydrocephalus
obstruction of lateral apertures of fourth ventricles, the mesencephalic aqueduct, or the interventricular foramen
Communicating hydrocephalus
results from obstructions which prevent the outflow of CSF int the dural venous system through the arachnoid villi
Hydrocephalus ex-vacuo
increase in size of lateral ventricles due to absence or loss of cerebral tissue as seen in hydranencephaly
Lissencepaly
the condition of having a smooth cerebrum without convolutions; flattened gyri
Anencephaly
absence of brain; affects the anterior part of the brain while the brain stem in intact (aka prosencephailc hypoplasia)
Hydranenchphaly
cavitation in white matter area of cerebral hemispheres; so white matter will br atrophied or shrunken and the gray matter on the exterior of the brain may be intact
Porencephaly
used to refer to systic development in the white matter of cerebrum
Cranium bifida
midline cranial defect through which meningial and brain tissue may protrude
Spina Bifida
a defect in the spinal column characterized by: no herniation through the dorsal spinal column, herniation of the meninges, herniation of meninges and spinal cord; so it has several forms; there may be NO herniation of the cord or meninges, it may just be a herniation of the meninges, or of BOTH meninges and spinal cord
Syringomyelia
tubular cavitation of spinal cord other than the central canal and extend oer many segments; cavitation may communicate with the central canal and may contain fluid and is unlined; basically an extra cavity in the spinal cord; equivilant to hydraencephaly in the brain.
Hydromyelia
dilation of the central canal with fluid
Dysraphia
abnormal seam referring to a defective closure of the neural tube during development; "raphe" = seam
Concussion
temporary loss of conciousness with recovery; not usually in animal with non-fatal blow
Contusion
an injury in which the skin is not broken; a bruise
Coup Contursion
lesion located at the impact side
Contrecoup contusion
lesion located at the opposite side of the brain
Coup-contrecoup contusion
lesion on both the impact side and opposite side of the brain; lesion on IMPACT side is more seious
Contrecoup-coup contusion
lesion on both the impact side and opposite side of the brain; lesion on OPPOSITE side is more seious
Brain swelling
unregulated vasodilation following trauma
Anencephaly
absence of brain; affects the anterior part of the brain while the brain stem in intact (aka prosencephailc hypoplasia)
Hydranenchphaly
cavitation in white matter area of cerebral hemispheres; so white matter will br atrophied or shrunken and the gray matter on the exterior of the brain may be intact
Porencephaly
used to refer to systic development in the white matter of cerebrum
Cranium bifida
midline cranial defect through which meningial and brain tissue may protrude
Spina Bifida
a defect in the spinal column characterized by: no herniation through the dorsal spinal column, herniation of the meninges, herniation of meninges and spinal cord; so it has several forms; there may be NO herniation of the cord or meninges, it may just be a herniation of the meninges, or of BOTH meninges and spinal cord
Syringomyelia
tubular cavitation of spinal cord other than the central canal and extend oer many segments; cavitation may communicate with the central canal and may contain fluid and is unlined; basically an extra cavity in the spinal cord; equivilant to hydraencephaly in the brain.
Hydromyelia
dilation of the central canal with fluid
Dysraphia
abnormal seam referring to a defective closure of the neural tube during development; "raphe" = seam
Concussion
temporary loss of conciousness with recovery; not usually in animal with non-fatal blow
Contusion
an injury in which the skin is not broken; a bruise
Coup Contursion
lesion located at the impact side
Contrecoup contusion
lesion located at the opposite side of the brain
Coup-contrecoup contusion
lesion on both the impact side and opposite side of the brain; lesion on IMPACT side is more seious
Contrecoup-coup contusion
lesion on both the impact side and opposite side of the brain; lesion on OPPOSITE side is more seious
Brain swelling
unregulated vasodilation following trauma
Anencephaly
absence of brain; affects the anterior part of the brain while the brain stem in intact (aka prosencephailc hypoplasia)
Hydranenchphaly
cavitation in white matter area of cerebral hemispheres; so white matter will br atrophied or shrunken and the gray matter on the exterior of the brain may be intact
Porencephaly
used to refer to systic development in the white matter of cerebrum
Cranium bifida
midline cranial defect through which meningial and brain tissue may protrude
Spina Bifida
a defect in the spinal column characterized by: no herniation through the dorsal spinal column, herniation of the meninges, herniation of meninges and spinal cord; so it has several forms; there may be NO herniation of the cord or meninges, it may just be a herniation of the meninges, or of BOTH meninges and spinal cord
Syringomyelia
tubular cavitation of spinal cord other than the central canal and extend oer many segments; cavitation may communicate with the central canal and may contain fluid and is unlined; basically an extra cavity in the spinal cord; equivilant to hydraencephaly in the brain.
Hydromyelia
dilation of the central canal with fluid
Dysraphia
abnormal seam referring to a defective closure of the neural tube during development; "raphe" = seam
Concussion
temporary loss of conciousness with recovery; not usually in animal with non-fatal blow
Contusion
an injury in which the skin is not broken; a bruise
Coup Contursion
lesion located at the impact side
Contrecoup contusion
lesion located at the opposite side of the brain
Coup-contrecoup contusion
lesion on both the impact side and opposite side of the brain; lesion on IMPACT side is more seious
Contrecoup-coup contusion
lesion on both the impact side and opposite side of the brain; lesion on OPPOSITE side is more seious
Brain swelling
unregulated vasodilation following trauma
Vasogenic ceebral edema
increased extracellular fluid from increased vascular permeabilitydue to breakdown of the blood brain barrier
Cytotoxic cerebral edema
increased intracellular fluid with blood
Infarction
necrosis of tissue due to obstruction of blood supply yo the part
Arteriosclerosis
increased arterial hardening; a chronic disease in which thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls result in impaired blood circulation. It develops with aging, and in hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and other conditions
Athersclerosis
a form of arteriosclerosis characterized by the deposition of astheromatous plaques containing cholesterol and lipids on the innermost layer of the walls of large and nmedium sized arteries
Non-lipid arteriosclerosis
arterial fibrosis, mineralization, and amyloidosis
Bone
a specialized form of connective tissue in which the extracellular componants are mineralized
Compact bone (cortical)
forms dense walls of the diaphysis; has a high density and is composed of concentric layers of bone tissue with a channel in the center
Haversian system
channel in the center of compact bone carrying blood vessels, lymph vessel;s, and nerves longitudinally
Cancellous (trabecular) bone
constitutes the spongy bone of the medularry cavity; formed by a 3-D l;attice of interlacing spicules or trabeculae; spaces between spicules contain the bone marrow.
Woven bone
immature bone present in the fetal development or early stages of bone repair; collagen fibers are randomly distributed and have crisscross pattern
Lamellar bone
mature bone present in normal adult stages; collagen fibers are perfectly arranged in a parallel pattern
Osteoblasts
derived from bone marrow stromal cells, main function is to produce protein called osteoid (bone matrix)
Osteocytes
reside inside the bone lacunae and are actively involved in mineral reabsorption
Osteoclasts
multinucleated cells derived from hepatopoitic progenitor cells; actively involved in the resorption (lysis) of bone
Intramembranous (appositional) ossification
growth in width; primarily in flat bones and along periosteal surfaces of bones
Endochondral ossification
responsible for the longitudinal growth of long bones and other bones with growth plates; growth cartilage is subsequently replaced by bone.
Osteopenia
denotes the loss of skeletal mass or "too little bone" reguardless of weather remaining bone has normal composition or not.
Chondrodysplasia (chondrodystrophiafetalis)
defective endochondral ossification that results in disproportionate dwarfism; appositional growth is normal although endochondral growth is impaired; examples where chondrodystrophoid characteristicts have been bred for are dog breeds like basset hounds, dauchunds, ets.
Osteoperosis
inherited disease in which defective osteoclasts fail to reabsorb and remodel the fetal bone; causes increased bone density with concurrent reduction of medullary spaces
Congenital cortical hyperostosis of pigs
affects long bones and is characterized by exaggerated periosteal bone growth; piglets often born dead or die shortly after birth; legs abnormally thickened.
Hyperostosis
excessive or abnormal thickening or growth of bone tissue; whole length of bone, EXCLUDING joints, in involved in new bone development
Enostosis
new bone inside marrow cavity
Exostosis
focal area of new bone growth no outside of bone