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45 Cards in this Set

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What is the function of endothelial cells?
1. synthetic and metabolic (endothelin, NO, thrombogenic factors etc.)
2. transfer of molecules
3. non-thrombogenic blood-tissue interface
What is the function of endothelial cells?
1. synthetic and metabolic (endothelin, NO, thrombogenic factors etc.)
2. transfer of molecules
3. non-thrombogenic blood-tissue interface
What is the function of smooth muscle?
1. controlvasoconstriction and dilatation
2. produce growth factors and cytokines
3. response to vascular injury
What is the function of endothelial cells?
1. synthetic and metabolic (endothelin, NO, thrombogenic factors etc.)
2. transfer of molecules
3. non-thrombogenic blood-tissue interface
What is the function of smooth muscle?
1. controlvasoconstriction and dilatation
2. produce growth factors and cytokines
3. response to vascular injury
Arteriosclerosis
hardening of the arteries
Arteriosclerosis
hardening of the arteries
What is the function of smooth muscle?
1. controlvasoconstriction and dilatation
2. produce growth factors and cytokines
3. response to vascular injury
What are the three forms of arteriosclerosis?
1. atherosclerosis (most common/important)
2. arteriolosclerosis (HTN)
3. Monckeberg medial sclerosis
Arteriosclerosis
hardening of the arteries
What are the three forms of arteriosclerosis?
1. atherosclerosis (most common/important)
2. arteriolosclerosis (HTN)
3. Monckeberg medial sclerosis
What arteries are affected by atherosclerosis?
1. aorta
2. carotid
3. iliac
4. coronary
5. popliteal
What arteries are affected by atherosclerosis?
1. aorta
2. carotid
3. iliac
4. coronary
5. popliteal
What are the three forms of arteriosclerosis?
1. atherosclerosis (most common/important)
2. arteriolosclerosis (HTN)
3. Monckeberg medial sclerosis
What arteries are affected by atherosclerosis?
1. aorta
2. carotid
3. iliac
4. coronary
5. popliteal
Atherosclerosis
-contributes to half of deaths in Western society
-MI - 20-25% of deaths
-considered to by a response to injury of endothelium
What are the risk factors for atherosclerosis? (7)
1. age
2. sex M
3. genetics
4. hyperlipidemia
5. HTN
6. cigarette smoking
7. diabetes
Hypertension
-140/90
-cornary heart disease and CVA
-95% idiopathic
-renal disease and adrenal disease
Malignant Hypertension
rapidly rising with diastolic over 120mmHg
Aneurysm
localized dilatation of the BV or heart wall
What are the major causes of aortic aneurysms?
-atherosclerosis - AAA
-cystic medial degeneration
-trauma, congenital defects, infections
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
caused from atherosclerosis with risk of rupture being related to size and a 50% mortality rate from rupture
What are the clinical consequences of and AAA?
-rupture
-obstruction
-embolism
-compression of the adjacent structures
Aortic Dissection
-dissection of blood into arterial media
-HTN risk factor
-due to medial damage
-may rupture
-sudden onset of sharp pain
What is the treatment for aortic dissection?
antiHTN, surgery, save 65-75% of patients
Vasculitis
-inflammation of the vessel walls
-classified by location and antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA) production
How do patients present with vasculitis?
fever, myalgia, arthralgia, malaise
ANCA production
classifies vasculitis (c-ANCA, p-ANCA)
Giant Cell Arteritis
*most common vasculitis
-granulomatous inflammation involving arteries of head (temp.)
What are symptoms of giant cell arteritis and diagnosis and treatment?
-older patient, may cause blindness, pain/headache, biopsy required for diagnosis
-treated with anti-inflamm. agents/steroids
Takayasu Arteritis
fibrous thickening or aortic arch and branches with ocular disturbances and weakened pulses (>females)
What are the side effects of Takayasu Arteritis?
-lower blood pressure and pulse in upper extremity than lower extremity
-renal artery narrowing by 50%- HTN
Wegener's Granulomatosis
-necrotizing vasculitis causing acute necrotizing granulomas of upper respiratory tract or lung and necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of small to medium sized vessels with renal disease, glomerulonephritis
*95% = c-ANCA positive
What age and sex is Wegener's granulomatosis?
40 yo
males
What is the clinical presentation of Wegener's Granulomatosis?
-persistent pneumonitis
-chronic sinusitis
-muscosal ulceration
-renal disease
Varicose Veins
-dilated superficial veins of upper and lower legs
-secondary to inc. venouspressure: standing, preg., familial tendency
-complications: rare, ulcer
-esophageal arices
-hemorrhoids
Thrombophlebitis
Phelebothrombosis
-thromobosed vein with inflamm. 90% in deep leg
What are risk factors for thrombophlebitis?
1. postop state
2. preg.
3. neoplasia
4. cardiac failure
5. prolonged bed rest
Deep Vein Thrombosis clinical presentation
-edema, heat, tenderness, pain with pressure or dorsiflexion of the foot (Homan sign)
-may lead to pulm. embolism
What is Homan sign?
pain with pressure or dorsiflexion of the foot with deep vein thrombosis
Sup. and Inf. Vena Cava Syndromes
-caused by compression of the vena cava with obstruction
-cyanosis and venous delatation
Lymphangitis
-group A Beta-hemolytic strep
-subcuaneous red streaks and lymph node enlargement
-may lead to septicemia
Hemangioma
-vascular neoplasm, benign, tongue, conj. etc.
-inc. in vessels filled with blood
Kaposi's Sarcoma
-vascular neoplasm in Jewish pop. classic or european that is endemci and trasplant and AIDS assoc.
-25% of AIDS patients with HHV* infection
Angiosarcoma
-vascular neoplasm that is malignant soft and red, often found in heart