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56 Cards in this Set

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What is pathology?
The study of death and disease through gross and microscopic examination of organs, tissue and chemical analysis of body fluids.
What are the 3 types of pathology?
Anatomical, Clinical Forensic
What are the 4 types of Anatomical pathology?
Surgical, Autopsy, Cytopathology, hematology
What is a death certificate?
Legal document signed by a physician that gives the opinion on cause of death based on scientific evidence.
What are some types of specimens for cytology?
PAP, fine needle aspirates, effusions (from pleural cavity, pericardial sac, peritoneal), other fluids from urine or cysts, BAL, sputum
What is the difference between cause of death, mechanism of death, manor of death?
Cause: injury or disease leading to death (i.e. cancer, gsw to head), mechanism: physiological aspect that is incompatible with life (i.e. ischemia of heart muscle), manor: natural, homicide, etc.
5 examples of "manors" of death?
Natural, Homicide, Suicide, Accident, Undetermined, Cremated people
What are some of the main modalities of disease?
Inflammation/infection, Neoplastic (either benign or malignant), congenital/gentic, metabolic/chemical disorders (i.e. diabetes), degenerative (i.e. arthritis)
What is "etiology?"
Cause of disease
What does pathogenesis mean?
Sequence of events that lead to development of disease (i.e. H chol to CAD to CHF to angina to MI)
What does sequelae mean?
Outcome of the disease (i.e. inflammation can lead to a scar)
What are some causes of cell injury or cell death?
Hypoxia, physical agents, chemical agents, infections, immunologic, genetic, nutritional issues, free radical damage
When the stability of a cell cannot be maintained, what are some types of cell adaptation?
Hypertrophy (increase in tissue mass due to increase in cell size), hyperplasia (increase in tissue mass due to increase in cell number), metaplasia (change from one tissue type to another), atrophy (decrease in tissue mass due to disuse)
What are the five types of necrosis?
Coagulative (seen in hypoxic environments), liquefaction necrosis (pus formation), fat necrosis (action of lipases on fatty tissues), caseous necrosis (TB patient, looks like cottage cheese), gangrenous necrosis (not enough blood to tissue)
What are the four types of tissue that every cell in the body can be classified into?
Epithelium, Muscle, Connective Nervous
What are the 3 layers of the developing embryo?
Endoderm, Ectoderm, Mesoderm
What main structures arise from the endoderm?
Epi of resp tract, epi of GI, tonsils, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, liver, pancreas, bladder epi, ear and escutcheon tube
What main structures arise from the ectoderm?
Epi of skin, epidermis of gland structures, enamel of teeth, oral mucosa, CNS, PNS, sensory
What main structures arise from the mesoderm?
Muscle, connective tissue, endothelium, kidneys, spleen, gonads, adrenal cortex
What are the 4 broad areas lined by epithelium?
Free surfaces (skin, lumen of GI, lining of body cavities), exocrine (many glands, sweat, breast glands, salivary), endocrine (adrenal, thyroid, parathyroid), linings (blood vessels, body cavities)
What does the basement membrane do?
Separates the epithelium from underlying soft tissue. Important barrier!
What are the 4 classifying shapes of epithelial cells?
Squamous, cuboidal, columnar, transitional
What are the 3 types of layering of epithelial cells?
Simple (1 layer), stratified, pseudostratified
What are the 6 types of epithelium (combined shape and layer name)?
Simple squamous, simple cuboidal, simple columnar, stratified squamos, pseudostratified columnar, transitional
What are some types of simple squamos cells and their location?
Pneumocytes, endothelium (cells that make up air spaces of lung, facilitate diffusion of materials across epithelium), endothelial cells (line blood and lymphatic vessels), mesothelial cells (lines body cavities or structures), endosteum (creates spaces in bone marrow), bowman's capsule in glomeruli of kidney.
What are some types of simple cuboidal cells and their location?
Many glands and ducts, cover the ovary, kidney tubules (secretions and linings), basic cell type of many glands (parotid, pancreas, liver, thyroid, glands of breast, sweat glands, kidney), surface of ovary, many ductal structures
Where would simple columnar cells be located?
GI tract, some ducts, gallbladder
What is the function of simple columnar cells?
Secretions and absorptions, some can have cilia (i.e. fallopian tube) to help with movement
What is the function of stratified squamos cells?
Protection from abrasion, foreign agents, dehydration
Where would stratified squamous cells be located?
Skin (only keratinized), oral mucosa lining, esophagus, rectum/anus, vagina, cervix
Where would pseudostratified columnar cells be located?
Respiratory epithelium, vas deferens (can be ciliated as in resp passages, eustachian)
Where would transitional cells be located?
Renal pelvis of kidney, urinary bladder, ureters
What are the 3 types of muscle?
Cardiac, skeletal, smooth
Is smooth muscle voluntary or involuntary?
Both
How many nuclei are present in smooth muscle and are they central or peripheral?
Multinucleated or single nuclei, located centrally
How many nuclei are present in cardiac muscle and are they central or peripheral?
Single or double, centrally located
How many nuclei are present in skeletal muscle and are they central or peripheral?
Multiple nuclei, located on periphery of muscle fibers
Involuntary non-striated smooth muscles have a single nucleus. Where are they located?
Throughout GI tract (peristalsis), bladder wall, uterus, scrotum, erector pili muscle
What are the three classifications of connective tissue?
Embryonic connective tissue, connective tissue proper, specialized connective tissue
What is the name of embryonic connective tissue?
Mesenchyme
What are the two types of connective tissue proper?
Loose connective tissue, dense irregular connective tissue
What are the five types of specialized connective tissue?
Dense regular connective tissue, cartilage, bone, adipose tissue, hematopoetic
What are the three components of connective tissue?
Cells, fibers, ground substance
What are five types of connective tissue cells?
Fibroblasts, chondroblasts, osteoblasts, adipose cells, blood and hematopoetic cells
What are the three types of connective tissue fibers?
Collagenous (resistant to stretching), elastic (allows for elasticity), reticular (provides framework for some organs)
Proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans are proteins that help make up ground substance in connective tissue. What are the four types of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans
Hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, keratin sulfate
Where is dense regular connective tissue primarily found?
Tendons and ligaments
What are the three types of cartilage?
Hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
Describe hyaline cartilage and where is it found?
Firm and flexible, closely packed collagenous fibers in a "glassy" appearing matrix. Found in articular surfaces, costal cartilage, trachea rings
Describe elastic cartilage and where is it found?
Firm and elastic looser collagenous fibers with abundant elastic fibers. Found in ear and epiglottis
Describe fibrocartilage and where is it found?
Firm and compressible, somewhat regular arrangement of thick collagenous bundles. Found in intervertebral discs, pubis symphysis, miniscus of knee
What is bone?
Collagenous fibers that have been mineralized
What are the four general components of the nervous system?
Central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system, special receptors
What are the two general types of cells of the nervous system?
Neurons (nerve cells transmit impulses), neuroglia (supportive role for neurons)
What are the five types of neuroglia and what do they do?
Astrocytes (make up blood brain barrier), microglia (macrophages), oligodendrocytes (produce myelin in the CNS), Schwann cells (produce myelin in the PNS), ependymocytes (line ventricles and spinal cord)
What are some of the more specific types of nerve cells?
Motor neurons, sensory neurons, bipolar cells, interneurons, purkinnji cells