Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Definition of Myasthenia gravis
autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibodies against the neuromuscular junction, resulting in muscular weakness
type of disease and where it takes place
Clinical Presentation of Myasthenia Gravis
Females > Males
Muscular weakness predominantly affecting hte facial muscles
Extraocular muscle weakness may lead to ptosis and diplopia
Weakness worsens with repeated contractions
Respiratory muscle involvement may lead to death
Gender Preference?
Predominantly affect what area?
Causes what in this area?
What worsens the ppresentation?
Can it lead to death and how?
Mechanism of Myasthenia gravis
autoantibodies against the acetylcholine (ACh) receptor
What other pathologies are associated with Myasthenia Gravis?
Associated with thymic hyperplasia and thymomas
What is the treatment for myasthenia gravis?
anticholinesterase agents, steroids, thymectomy
What is Eaton-Lambert syndrome asociated with?
commonly a paraneoplastic syndrome of small-cell lung cancer
what syndrome is associated with small cell lung cancer?
Eaton-Lambert syndrome
What is the mechanism of Eaton-Lanbert Syndrome?
Production of antibodies directed against the calcium channel.
What is the clinical presentation of Eaton-Lambert syndrome?
Proximal muscular weakness
Weakness improves with repeated contraction
Two things
How does Duchenene Muscular Dystophy stand out from the other dystrophys?
most common and severe form of muscular dystrophy.
prevelence and severity
Is duchenne muscular dystrophy inherited? What type of inheritance?
X-linked inheritance
What is the mechanism for duchenne muscular dystrophy?
Mutation in dystrophin gene on the X chromosome (Xp21). Dystrophin is an important muscular protein and due to the mutation it is absent.
What chromosome is the dystrophin gene on?
X chromosome (Xp21)
Why is the dystrophin protein important?
it is an important muscle structural protein.
How does the mutation in the dystrophin gene on on chromosome Xp21 effect the dystrophin protein?
results in an absence in the dystrophin protein.
What is the clinical presentation of duchenne muscular dystrophy?
Normal at birth with onset of symptoms by age 5.
Progressive muscular weakness
Proximal weakness of shoulder and pelvic girdles
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Heart failure and arrythmias may occur
Respiratory insufficiency and pulmonary infections
at what age do symptomes begin
where does the weakness most significantly occur
where on the body do the muscles look extremely abnormal and what is this called
can it be fatal
name all 4 ways
What lab result will be found in Duchenne muscular dystrophy?
elevated serum creatine kinase
What are the micro characteristics associated with duchenne muscular dystrophy?
muscle fibers of various sizes
necrosis, degeneration, and regeneration of fibers
fatty infiltration
4 things
How will you diagnose Duchenne muscular dystrophy?
Muscle Biopsy: immunostains whaw decreased dystrophin protein
DNA analysis by PCR
2 ways
What is the other type of muscular dystrophy besides Duchenne muscular dystrophy?
Becker Muscular dystrophy
What is the prevalence and severity of Becker muscular dystrophy?
less common and not as severe as Duchenne muscular dystrophy
What is becker muscular dystrophy caused by?
mutation in dystrophin protein
What is the age on onset and progression of Becker muscular dystrophy as compared to duchenne muscular dystrophy?
Later on set with variable progression
Is there cardiac or respiratory involvement with becker muscular dystrophy?
Cardiac involvement is rare
What is the life span of someone with Becker muscular dystrophy?
They may have a relatively normal life span.
What is the clinical presentation of Guillain-Barre syndrome?
Preceded by a viral illness
muscular weakness with an ascending paralysis
Loss of DTRs
3 things

preceded by..
type of paralysis
What is the actual pathology (mechanism) of Guillain-Barre syndrome?
inflammation of demyelination of peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots, resulting in muscular weakness
How would you diagnose Guillain-Barre syndrome?
Nerve conduction studies
lumbar puncture would have elevated protein
2 tests
What is the prognosis of someone with Guillain-Barre syndrome?
Fatal in 5% because of respiratory paralysis.
what percent?
What are the two types of acute meningitis?
Acute aseptic (viral) meningitis
Acute purulent (bacterial) meningits
viurs and bacteria
Whhere is the inflamation seen in acute aseptic meningits and what is the most frequent causative virus type
leptomeningeal (arachnoid and pia mater) inflammation due to viruses (enterovirus most frequent)
What type of infiltration is seen in acute aseptic meningitis and in what two areas is it found?
Lymphocyti infiltration of leptomeninges and superficial cortex.
What is the clinical appearance of acute aseptic meningitis?
Fever, signs of meningeal irritation, depressed consciousness
3 things
What is the mortality rate of acute aseptic meningitis?
Low mortality
Where is the inflammation seen in acute purulent meningitis?
purulent leptomeningeal inflammation due to bacteria.
What is the most common cause of acute purulent meningitis in the following age groups:
infants and children
adelescents and yound adults
neonates: group B streptococci, Escherichia Coli
infants and children: haemophilus influenzae
Adolescents and young adults neisseria meningitidis
Elderly: Streptococcus pneumoniae and listeria monocytogenes
In acute purulent meningits what type of infiltration and what precific areas of the leptomeninges is the infiltrate found.
neutrophilic infiltration of the leptomeninges, extending variably to cortex
In acute purulent meningitis will the leptomeninges have any distinct appearance?
Opaque leptomeninges
What color
In acute purulent meningitis there is Diffuse _____ _____ which creates a risk of _____ ______
Diffuse cerebral edema: risk of fatal herniations
What is the clinical presentation of Acute bacterial meningitis?
Headache, fever, nuchal rigidigy, cloudy sensorium (level of consciousness), coma, and death
6 things
What is the result of the organization of purulent exudate and fibrosis in acute purulent meningitis?
cranial nerrve impairment (neural deafness)
2 things
What is the cause of mycobacterial meningoencephalitis?
Can be caused by mycobaterium tuberculosis or atypical mycobacteria
What area of the brain does mycobacterial meningoencephalitis involve.
Usually involves the basal surface of the brain
What is a main characteristic finding in mycobacterial meningoencephalitis?
characteristic tuberculomas within the brain and dura mater.
Mycobacterial meningoencephalitis is often found in ____ patients, particularly by _______ ______.
AIDS, mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI)
CSF Parameter in Different Forms of Meningitis
What are the normal CSF values for:
Cells, gulcose, proteins, and pressure
Cells: <5 lymphocytes
Glucose: 45-85 (50-70% glycemia)
Proteins: 15-45
Pressure: 70-180
CSF Parameter in Different Forms of Meningitis
In bacterial meningitis what are the CSF values for:
Cells, gulcose, proteins, and pressure
Cells: up to 90,000 neutrophils
Glucose: decreased (<45)
Proteins: Inceased (>50)
Pressure: Markedly elevated
CSF Parameter in Different Forms of Meningitis
In viral meningitis what are the CSF values for:
Cells, gulcose, proteins, and pressure
Cells: 100-1,000 mostly lymphocytes
Glucose: normal
Proteins: Increased (>50)
Pressure: Slightly elevated
CSF Parameter in Different Forms of Meningitis
In granulomatous (mycobacterial/fungal) meningitis what are the CSF values for:
Cells, gulcose, proteins, and pressure
Cells: 100-1,000 lymphocytes
Glucose: Decreased (<45)
Proteins: Increase (>50)
Pressure: Moderately elevated
What are the common features of viral encephalitis?
Perivascular cuffs, microglial nodules, neuron loss, and neuronophagia
4 things
What are the clinical manifestations of viral encephalitis?
variable (mental status change, fever, and headache, often progressive to coma)
What are the 4 specific forms of viral encephalitis?
Herpes Simplex Type 1
What is characteristic of herpes simplex type 1 viral encephalitides?
characteristic hemorrhagic necrosis of temporal lobes
What is characteristic of rabies viral encephalitis?
charaacteristic negri bodies in hippocampal and purkinje neurons
What is characteristic of the HIV form of viral encephalitides.
Cerebral involvement is common and leads to AIDS-dementia complex.
What is included in the AIDS-dementia complex and what is it's histopathology?
Dementia and other neurological abnormalities.
histopathology: microglial nodules and diagnostic multinucleated giant cells
What does spinal involemnet of HIV viral encephalitis lead to?
spinal involvement of HIV viral encephalitis leads to "vacuolar myelopathy": similar to vitamin B12 deficiency-associated "subacute combined degeneration"
What is "progressive multifolal leukoencephalopathy " (PML)?
Related to JC virus (a polyomavirus)
JC virus causes PML in immunocompromised patients (especially AIDS)
Histopathology: demyelination, lymphohistiocytic, and astrogliosis
astrocytes acqure bizarre shapes
Oligodendrocytes in acive lesions contain intranuclear inclusions.
What patient population does "progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy" occur in?
What are the most frequent causative agent of fungal meningoencephalitides?
Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and Mucor species are hte most frequent agents
In fungal meningoencephalities, two causative agents have a marked tropism for blood vessels. What are these agents and what does this cause?
Aspergillus and mucor have ea marked tropism for blood vessels: vasculitis, rupture of blood vessels, and hemorrhage are the results.
Which agent causes diffuse meningoencephalities and the common characteristic of this?
Cryptococcus causes diffuse mentingoencephalitis and "soap bubble lesions" are the characteristic of cryptococcus.
For toxoplasmosis,
what is the most common pat. pop., what is the result of the infxn., and the is the diagnostic characteristic of of toxoplasmosis?
AIDS patients
Cerebral abscess with central necrosis and chronic inflammation
mRI/CT scan: characteristic ring-enhancing lesions
What are the clinical manifectations and diagnostic characteristic of a cerebral abcess?
CT/MRI: ring-enhancing lesion
Signs of increasd intracranial pressure (headache, vomiting, and papilledema)
Focal neurological deficits