Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/25

Click to flip

25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the 8 cellular functions
1. Movement
2. Conductivith
3. Metabolic absorption
4. Secretion
5. Excretion
6. Respiration
7. Reproduction
8. Communication
Cell movement
- Muscle cells produce movement by contraction and relaxation
- Attached to bone- limb movement
-Enclosing hollow tubes- move or empty contents when they contract
Cell Conductivity
-Chief function of nerve cells
-Manifested by an electric potential in response to some stimulus.
Cell Metabolic Absorption
-All Cells
-Cells take in and process nutrients and other substances.
Cell Secretion
-Only certain cells
-Cells can make new substances to use all over the body to serve as needed
-Different cells secrete different things
Cell Excretion
-All cells
-Rid cell of waste prodicts resulting from metabolic breakdown of nutrients.
-Lysosomes(membrane-bound sacs) within cells contain enzymes that break down/digest large molecules, turn them into waste products, and release them from the cell
Cell Respiration
-All Cells
-The cell can absorb oxygen to create ATP
-Cellular respiration-oxidation- occurs in the mitochondria
-cells absorb O2, used to transform nutrients into E in the form of ATP.
Cell Reproduction
- Not all cells are capable of continuous division & some cells cannot reproduce
-Nerve cells are an ex. of cells that cannot reproduce
-Several types of cells can grow and reproduce themselves, new cells are needed to replace cells that die.
-Skin cells constantly reproduce
-Tissue growth occurs as cells enlarge and reproduce themselves
-Tissue maintenance requires that new cells be produced to replace cells that are lost normally through cellular death
Cell communication
-Equilibrium is maintained only through cellular interaction and communication.
-Communication happens through protein channels
-Vital for survival of a society of cells
-At point where communication breaks down,that's where disease occurs
Nucleus- Structure
-Largest membrane-bound organelle
-Two membranes compose the nuclear envelope (outer membrane is continuous with the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum). They enclose the fluid-filled interior of the nucleus- nucleoplasm.
-Contains a nucleolus
-Contains most of cellular DNA and histones (DNA-binding proteins that cause the long DNA chain to fold into chromosomes)
Nucleus Function
-Cell division
-Control of genetic information
-Replication and repair of DNA
-Transcription of info stored in DNA(transcribed into RNA and eventually introduced into cytoplasm where it directs cellular activities)
-Processing of RNA occurs in nucleolus
Ribosomes
-RNA-protein complexes synthesized in the nucleolus and secreted into the cytoplasm
-Provide sites for cellular protein synthesis
Endoplasmic Reticulum
-A network of tubular channels (cisternae) that extend throughout the outer nuclear membrane
-Synthesizes and transports protein and lipid components of most organelles
Golgi complex
-A network of smooth membranes and vesicles located near the nucleus
-Processes and packages proteins onto secretory vesicles that break away from the complex and migrate to different destinations
Lysosomes
-Saclike structures, originate in Golgi complex
-Contain enzymes for digesting most cellular substances down to their basic form (Amino acids, fatty acids, and sugars)
-Cell injury leads to release lysosomal enzymes that cause cellular self-destruction
Peroxisomes
-Similar to lysosomes but contain enzymes that produce of use hydrogen peroxide
-Detoxify harmful substances
Mitochondria
-Cellular energy metabolism
-Enzymes of respiratory chain/electron transport chain generate most of cell's ATP through oxidative phosphorylation.
-Has a role in osmotic regulation
-Role in pH control
-Role in calcium homeostasis
-Role in cell signaling
Cytoskeleton
-"Bone and muscle" of the cell
-Composed of a network of protein filaments, including microtubules and actin filaments
-Forms cell extensions (microvilli, cilia, flagella)
Caveolae
-Tiny indentations (caves) that can capture extracellular material and shuttle it inside the cell or across the cell
Vaults
-Cytoplasm ribonucleoproteins shaped like octagonal barrels
-Thought to act as "trunks", shuttling molecules from nucleus to elsewhere in the cell.
Movement of water and solutes in membrane transport
-Water and solutes diffuse across the membrane
-Solutes- small particles of dissolved substances
-Ex. of solutes: O2, CO2, urea, and other lipid-soluble particles.
-Electrolyyes are 95% of the solute molecules in body water.
-Larger molecules such as albumin and globulins do not readily pass without assistance, need carriers. These exert an osmotic effect on the movement of water.
Diffusion
-Movement of solute molecules from an area of greater solute concentration to an area of lesser solute concentration- down conc. gradient until equilibrium is reached.
-Rate is related to particle size and weight.
-Ex. O2, N, CO2
Osmosis
-Movement of water down a concentration gradient, across a semipermeable membrane.
-For osmosis to occur: 1) The membrane must be more permeable to water than to solutes, and 2) the concentration of solutes must be greater so that water moves more easily.
-Rate is not related to particle size or weight, but to hydrostatic pressure and solute concentration.
Pattern formation
-Cells make tissues, tissues make organs, organs make organ systems...etc
-To form tissues, cells must exhibit intercellular recognition and communication, adhesion, and memory.
Types of tissues
1. Nerve
2. Epithelial
3. Connective
4. Muscle