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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
History of increasing numbers of of multiple benign skin nodules. Firm nodules .5 to 1 cm, subcutaneous. Numerous 1-5 cm pigmented skin lesions. Hamartomatous nodules on the iris. One skin nodules shows a neoplasm attached to a peripheral nerve. What does this patient have?
Neurofibromatosis type 1. The NF1 gene normally deactivates RAS
How do phorbol esters cause tumor promotion
By activating protein kinase C
What would be the difference between hyperplasia of colonic mucosa and a tubular adenoma
A true neoplasm is a monoclonal proliferation of cells, whereas a reactive proliferation is not monoclonal
What happens to approximately 1% of patients infected with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1
T-cell leukemia
Increased expression of ERBB2 (HER2) can lead to what type of cancer
Breast cancer. At least one third of breast cancers show increased expression of this gene
What type of cancer is seen in a BCR-ABL fusion
Chronic myeloid leukemia
What is a feature of the MYC protooncogene
Transcriptional activation
Microsatellite instability occurs with mutations in genes, such as hMSH2, that repair DNA damage. What does this commonly lead to
Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer
How is the grading scale measured
Denoted from I-III or I-IV, and increase with worse differentiation (more anaplasia). Grading does not measure presence of metastases
What gene is likely affected by a chromosomal t(14;18) translocation
BCL2 antiapoptosis gene
How is carcinoma in situ identified
It is confined to the epithelium; the basement membrane has not been breached
What is vinyl chloride exposure linked to
Angiosarcomas of the liver
Familial breast cancer is linked to what gene
Approximately 5% to 10% of breast cancers are familial, and 80% of these genes are linked to mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. They are involved in DNA repair
What does the protease cathepsin D stain for
Cathepsin D is a cysteine proteinase that cleaves a variety of substrates such as fibronectin and laminin. High levels of this enzyme in tumor cells are associated with greater invasiveness
What does detection of alpha-Fetoprotein indicate
Alpha-Fetoprotein is a tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinomas and some testicular carcinomas
Small cell anaplastic carcinoma is usually found where
The lung
What is typically associated with pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas
Hypercalcemia from a parathormone-related peptide
What is associated with renal cell carcinoma
Etythropoietin production with polycythemia
Where does a nevus arise
The skin
What is a choristoma
A benign mass composed of tissues not found at the site of origin
What is a hemangioma
A common benign lesion of the skin
A mutated APC gene will lead to what
Sporadic colon cancers and in familial polyposis coli
What is cadmium exposure linked to
Prostate cancer
Arsenic exposure can cause what
Skin cancer
What do patients with hereditary nonpolyposis colon carcinoma inherit
One defective copy of mismatch repair genes
When is the MYC oncogene commonly activated
Burkitt lymphoma, because of a t(8;14) translocation
How are chemokine receptors connected to cancer
There is increasing evidence that localization of cancer metastases is influenced by the expression of chemokine receptors by cancer cells and elaboration of theri ligands (chemokines) by certain tissues
Primary or secondary immunodeficiency diseases carry an increased rick of what
Neoplasia, particularly lymphomas
What does a high alkaline phosphatase concentration in a patient with prostate cancer suggest
There are metastases to bone