Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What adaptations are reversible?
atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia and metaplasia
What adaptations are irreversible?
agenesis, aplasia, hypoplasia, neoplasia
What does atrophy mean?
decrease in cell size and volume
What are some examples of physiologic atrophy?
notochord, thryglossal duct, decrease in size of thymus
What are some ways that pathologic atrophy can occur
1. diuse
2. denervation
3. decreased blood supply
4. nutrition
5. loss of endocrine stimulation
6. aging
7. pressure
What does ubiquitin do to the cells and atrophy?
binds to proteins slated for removal; by removing cells decreasing cell size
When is a residual body left behind?
it is the undigestable material after autophagy of cell organelles in atrophy
When are blood vessels smaller than normal?
hypoplastic state
What is hyperplasia?
increase in number of cells
What is hypertrophy?
increase in size of cell
What is an example of when hyperplasia takes place?
endometrium and parathryoid; removing half the liver "compensatory"
Increasing kinase activity is mechanism for what?
What is metaplasia?
change in differentiation of cells, forming tissue not normally present
Example of metaplasia?
squamous metaplasia; transformation of different epithelium into stratified squamous epithelium
What is the condition where mucus-secreting columnar epithlium are found in the esophagus?
Barrett's esophagus
What are some things that can cause cell injury?
physical agents
chemicals and drugs
microbiologic agents
immunologica reactions
genetic factors
nutritional factors
What happens when cells are injured?
loss of ability to generate ATP, generation of ROS, defects in membrane permeability, increased intracellular Ca
What are the essential cellular components that can be injured?
aeorbic respiration, cell membrane, protein synthesis, nucleus
Examples of reversible cell injury
hydropic change
fatty change
hyaline degeneration
inclusions and deposits
How does hypoxia cause a reversible cell injury?
by decreasing ATP there is a decrease in cell membrane transport so net flux of water and Na and cell swells
What does decrease oxidative phosphorylation do to cells?
causes injury because it increases the glyoltic pathway and get lactic acid accumulation which leads to decrease in pH
What does detachment of ribosomes from the RER lead to?
decreased protein synthesis and reversible change
How are blebs created?
altered cytoskeletal; swollen protruding area is a bleb
When is cell death inevitable?
unrecoverable mitochondria damage and severe cell membrane damage
What does an influx of Ca cause?
irreversible injury; activates phospholipases which damage membranes
Is loss of phospholipids from the membranes reversible?
What is the significant problem with damaged cell membranes?
leakage of intracytoplasmic contents
What allows for diagnosis of liver failure?
AST and ALT enzymes
What do CK and troponin in blood indicate?
mycocardial damage
What do lipase and amylase in the blood indicate?
pancreatic necrosis
What is a morphological change of the mitochondria as a result of irreversible damage?
marked swelling and dense body formation
What do damaged lysosomes do?
release enzymes and the digestion of cell components
What is karyloysis?
nucleus fades away
What is pyknosis?
hard and dark nucleus
What is karyorrehexis?
random breakup of nucleus
What happens in a reperfusion injury?
increased O2 free radicals; inflammation can be increased by ischemic injury, C' activated and cytokines are generated
What are free O2 radicals?
reactive molecular species that are derived from O2 and contain a single, unpaired electron
How are free radicals formed?
1.absorption of radiant energy
2.enzymatic change of exogenous chemicals
3. reduction-oxidation rxn
4. Fe or Cu contribute e-
5. NO
What acts as a catalyst for free radical formation
Fe and Cu
How is a hydroxyl radical formed?
ferrous iron reacts with H2O2
Examples of free radicals?
superoxide anion
hydroxyl radical
What is peroxynitrite?
superoxide + NO
What are 2 ways that free radicals cause injury?
can combine with other molecules and disrupt structure and function or set up auto-catalytic rxns
How does CCl4 cause injury?
may react with P450 oxidases to form CCl3 which can damage RER and inhibit protein synthesis
When can lipid peroxidation occur?
when CCl4 reacts with lipid radicals
What can be the end result of lipid peroxidation?
fatty liver or inactivation of mitochondria, cell enzymes and denaturation of proteins
How is free radical injury prevented?
Vitamin E and A; sequestration of Fe and Cu; SOD, catalase and glutahthione peroxidase
example of coagulative necrosis
myocardial infraction
liquefactive necrosis
enzymatic fat necrosis
acute pancreatis
caseous necrosis
TB granuloma
What is coagulation necrosis?
denaturation of cellular proteins
Where is "red" infract seen?
organs with dual blood supply; lung
What is a "special" type of coagulation necrosis?
What is liquefactive necrosis?
initial digestion of cells and tissue predominantes with loss of structure
What is fat necrosis?
necrosis of pancreatic cells that contains large amounts of hydrolytic enzymes
What is caseous necrosis?
due to mycobacterial or fungal infection and necrotic tissue is formed into a "cheesy" material
What is fibrinoid necrosis?
necrosis occurring in arterial walls
In what diseases is the apoptosis process disrupted or abnormal?
neoplasia and SLE
What are some normal apoptotic processes?
embryogeneis, involution of adult organs, death of immune cells, cell deletion in proliferating cell populations and tumors
When is apoptosis pathological?
mild injury, some viral diseases, pathologic atrophy in organs after duct obstruction and cytotoxic T cells
What are some morphologic changes in apoptosis?
cell shrinks and detaches from neighbor, blebs form, chromatin condensation, apoptotic bodies form, phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies
What are some biochemical changes in apoptosis?
protein cleavage by caspases
DNA breakdown
phagocytic recognition
3 types of caspases?
1. interleukin converting enzyme
2. death-signaling/initator
3. executioner
What is extrinisic apoptosis?
initated by members of tumor necrosis factor receptor family; receptor ligand interactions FAS or TNF
What is intrinisic apoptosis?
replacement of anti-apoptotic proteins in the mitochondria; withdrawl of growth factors or hormones
What are some negative signals that initiate apoptosis?
increased O2 derived radicals, damage to DNA, binding of ligands to specific receptors, or withdrawl of positive signals
When would you see a councilman body?
acute hepatitis
What is the stimuli for necrosis?
hypoxia or toxins
stimuli for apoptosis?
physiological or pathological
tissue reaction in necrosis?
tissue reaction in apoptosis?
no inflammation; phagocytosis of apoptotic body
uptake by endocytosis; lysosomal catabolism
removal of damaged organelles during injury, remodeling, atrophy or hormonal involution: lysosomal catabolism
What happens to the SER during injury
hypertrophy because detoxify more rapidly
What are some mitochondrial alterations during cell injury?
increased number in hypertrophy, decreased number in atrophy, megamitochondria in liver disease
What are some way normal endogenous substances accumulate?
genetic or aquired defect in metabolism, packaging, transport or secretion of the substance
How does a gene mutation lead to intracellular accumulation?
production of abnormally folded protein like alpha-1-antitrypsin
2 diseases that cause microvesicular fat only?
Reyes syndrome and acute fatty liver in pregnacy
What are foamy cells?
macrophages that have taken up large amounts of cholesterol because they took up cell membranes in areas of necrosis
Where would could there be an accumulation of proteins?
What does the absence of alpha-1-antitrypsin lead to?
lung damage
What does an abnormal alpha-1-antitrypsin protein lead to?
collects in cytoplasm and can result in liver damage
What is Fe stored as?
What is Fe transported as?
What is hemosiderin?
product when small amounts of Fe undergo autophagy
How can excess intracellular cause injury?
1. can catalyze free radical formaion and lipid peroxidation
2. damage DNA
3. stimulate collagen synthesis
What are some conditions where Fe accumulates?
aplastic anemia, sickle cell, thalassemias, bone marrow transplant
What is hemochromatosis?
AR disorder of Fe absorption; deposition in various organs that leads to toxicity
How is copper excreted?
via biliary tract so chronic biliary obstruction can lead to copper accumulation in hepatocytes
Wilson's disease?
AR disease of Cu accumulation; toxic levels accumulate in the liver and becomes deposited in other tisssues causing hemolysis
what is diagnostic of wilsons disease?
keiser frasher rings
What is dystrophic calcification?
deposition of Ca in necrotic or chronically traumatized tissue; NORMAL serum Ca levels
Examples of dystrophic calcification
fat necrosis, caseous necrosis, walls of blood vessels affected by atherosclerosis
What is metastatic calcification?
occurs in conditions of high serum Ca levels with Ca deposits in viable tissue
Causes of hypercalcemia
hyperparathyroidism, destruction of bone, vitamin D poisoning, milk-alkali syndrome
What are the predilected areas associated with alkaline milieu?
intersistial tissues of gastric mucosa, kidneys, lungs
How are hyalin and hyaline different?
hyaline is a adjective describing a homogeneous glassy pink appearance and hyalin is a noun that refers to a substance with a hyaline appearance