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63 Cards in this Set

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List Four Pathological Adaptations
Atrophy, Hypertrophy, Metaplasia, Dysplasia.
Describe Atrophy
Cells decrease in size (organ shrinks, e.g. CP 13: brain atrophy)
Describe Hypertrophy.
Cells increase in size (e.g. muscle man)
Describe Hyperplasia
A group of cells undergo mitosis. The size of the cells doesn’t change, only the number.
Describe Metaplasia
One cell type changes to another type of cell.
Describe Dysplasia
The first step before cancer (precancerous) [enlargement of an organ by abnormal cell growth.]
LGN problem described in class was this type of adaptation:
Atrophy
RPE problem discussed was:
Retinal Pigment Epithelium Hypertrophy
What does CHIRPE stand for?
Congenital Hypertrophy In the Retinal Pigment Epithelium.
None
What is Pinguecula?
Hyperplasia.
Pterygium was this type of adaptation:
Hyperplasia.
None
Conjunctival metaplasia can be caused by?
Vitamin A deficiency.
None
List 7 etiological agents:
Hypoxic hypoxia, Ischemic hypoxia, Physical agents (trauma), Chemical agents (toxins), Biological agents (Bacteria, Viri, Fungi, Protozoan), Inflammatory mediators, Nutritional disorders.
Provide 3 forms of pathogenesis:
ROS (Free radicals), Membrane dammage, Decreased cellular respiration.
Give 5 endogenous accumulations, please.
Lipofuscin, Melanin, Hemosiderin, Billirubin, Calcium.
List 3 exogenous accumulations:
Copper, Carbon, & Tattoo ink.
None
Regurgitate 5 degenerations, please.
Fatty acids, Cholesterol, Glycogen, Protein, Water.
None
What color is Lipofuscin?
Brown
Freckels & age spots formed by?
Melanin over produced in adjacent cells.
I say golden yellow, you say:
Hemosiderin
What color is bilirubin?
Brown/Yellow/Green.
Copper ocular ring?
Kayser-Fleischer Ring.
Red color?
Heme
Fleischer Ring is made up of:
Hemosiderin
What do you use a cobalt-blue filter to observe?
Hemosiderin of Fleischer's Ring
Icteric Sclera is what type of pathology?
An accumulation (of Billirubin).
Describe Dystrophic Calcification:
Heart valve "teeth"
What is calcification in the eye called?
"Conjunctival Concretions"
What disease has Athracosis as a symptom?
Pneumoconiosis.
Anthracosis is an accumulatin of what?
Carbon.
What two problems arise from anthracosis?
Hypoxic hypoxia & fibrosis.
Fibrosis: High or Low Lung compliance?
Low Compliance.
Cirrhosis aka?
Steatosis.
Free Fatty Acids + _____ = vLDL?
Apoprotein
What does Beta-oxidation convert fats into?
Ketones and Carbon dioxide.
What are two substrates for liponeogenesis by the liver?
Amino acids and glucose.
Give two sources for FFAs:
Adipose tissue breakdown and Chylomicrons
What is Xanthelasma?
Raised yellow plaques occurring around the eyelids, resulting from high levels of circulating FFAs.
This is a Cholesterol accumulation ring at Descemet's Membrane:
Arcus Senilis
When protein and antibodies accumulate inside the plasma cell, we have:
Russell Bodies.
Provide two locations of Amyloid formation:
Blood vessels, & neurons (e.g. Alzheimers).
When protein in the nephron tubules makes them more eosinophilic, we have:
Hyaline Degeneration: PCT
What is the major cause for hydropic degeneration?
Decreased cellular respiration.
List 7 effects of water accumulation:
1. Nuclear material clumps, 2. Organelles swell, 3. Degranulation of rER, 4. Myelination of plasma membrane, 5. Autophagy, 6. Blebbing, 7. Cell Swelling
Wearing contacts overnight can cause:
Hydropic degeneration.
What are three nuclear changes affiliated with Necrosis.
Pyknosis, Karyorrhexis, Karyolysis
Give 3 methods of accumuation:
Ingestation, Metabolic imbalances, Protein homeostais imbalance.
List 3 styles of cell death:
Autolysis, Necrosis, Apoptosis
What are the 3 types of necrosis discussed:
Coagulative, Caseating, Liquefactive Necrosis.
What is the most likely cause of colagulative necrosis?
Ischemia
Denaturing enzymes are responsible for what sort of cell dammage?
Coagulative necrosis
Name the enzymes which produce purulent substances:
Pyogenic enzymes
Granulomas are formed through ____ necrosis which is caused by ____.
Granulomas are formed through Caseating necrosis which is caused by TB
An ocular manefestation of Coagulative necrosis would be:
Occulsion of the retinal artery
Orbital cellulitis = ____ necrosis.
Liquefactive necrosis
An ocular infection of TB would cause:
Caseating necrosis
What are the most likely etiologies behind Liquefactive Necrosis?
Biological agents (bacteria, virus, etc.)
Name three Intrinsic causes for apoptosis:
Mitochondrial cytocrhomes & DNA Dammage from ROS, toxins, etc, & withdraw of trophic factors
Rattle off 3 Extrinsic causes for apoptosis:
Cytotoxic T-cell activity, FAS Ligand action on TNF receptor, Increased Calcium concentration
What manner of cell death is Glaucoma?
Apoptosis
What is another sign of Glaucoma other than increased intraocular pressure?
Cupped papilla (Apoptosis caused by high intraocular pressure).
A Staph A infection could cause ____ necrosis?
Liquefactive necrosis
I say Bone-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), you say:
Glaucoma, Apoptosis, Cupped optic nerve papilla