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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is etiology
Cause of a disease
What is pathogenesis
It is the response of the cell to the etiologic agent, this response can range from back of the initial stimulus to full symptoms of the disease
How does cell injury occur
Cell exist in a homesostasis and have a certain functions that they must perform within limits, when they have a increase in stimulus or stress, they adapt, if they can’t adapt, they have injury
What would be an example of adaptation
Hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, neoplasisa
Is adaptation protective of cell injury
What is hypoxia
Is low oxy, example is skiers they get low oxy to the brain and they feel sick
What is ischemia
Is low oxy and low in nutrients, severe
What is metaplasia
It is replacement of one differentiated/mature cell with another one, it is an integral part of adaptation, most common is columnar to squamous in respiratory cells in response to chronic inflammation
What is atrophy
It is loss of cell size and function, if there is decrease on the number of the cells then its called apoptosis, it can be either physio or pathologic
Why is it important to distinguish between organ and tissue atrophy
Because organ atrophy can be due to reverse or irreversible cell loss
What are some of the examples of physiologic atrophy
Physiologic atrophy occurs during embryonic development, examples would be shrinkage of thyroglossal duct, notochord, developing large vessels of cardiovascular system, also decrease in the size and the cell mass of the thymus
What is the pathological atrophy
It is due to an underlying cause, it can be local or generalized
What are some of the examples of path. Atrophy
1Disuse, when a broken limb is immobilized in a cast, doctors induce atrophy.2 Denervation, muscles depnd on the nervation, if no nerve input the muscle will not develop properly.3 Nutrition, this is seen with marasmus and cachexia,in marasmus, muscle tissue is used instead of adipose tissue, this causes the muscles to waste away called cachexia. 4 Aging, our organs in general get smaller w/age, like heart and brain, heart gets brown. 5 Loss of endocrine function, i.e. menopause. 6 Decreased blood supply, this ischemia can cause problem.7 Pressure, compression of any tissue can cause atrophy, this is seen with tumors.
Is atrophy associated with cell death
No, atrophy only causes a reduction in size, for example ischemia, will cause the blood supply to be less but if it gets low to the point that the cell can even carryout normal function, it will cause death, also stimuli for atrophy is similar to apoptosis
What is ubiquinatoin
Process that leads to atrophy, basically proteins bound for removal bind to the activated ubiquitin and are carried to a proteasome where they are chewed up to their AA sequence, ubiquitin is then released and recycled
What is autophagy
Autophagy is also an example of atrophy, basically these autohagic cells surround the organelles of the cells like ER, or mitochondria, thye completely envelope the cell and then a lysosome comes in and empties it’s content into the autphagic body. Some of the material will resist that catalysis and they can accumulate and it will exist as a dense body
What is an example of material that resists autophagy
Lipofuscin, seen in older ppl and can give the tissue a brown tint
What is the difference between hypolasia and atrophy
Hypoplasia is reduction of cell mass and volume if it happens before birth, atrophy is same if it happens after birth
What is hyperplasia
Increase in cell number
What is hypertrophy
Increase in cell size
Where do we see hypertrophy
In cells that lose their ability to divide increase in size, they also increase their intracellular organelle size
What is not hypertrophy
Cells that increase size due to swelling, that is usually a inflammatory response
What is the difference between hyperplastic polyp vs. neoplatic polyp
Neoplastic can become malignant
What are the examples of physiologic hyperplasia
Hormonal (increase in functional response to a certain event like female breast during puberty and uterus during pregnancy, mediated by estrogen) or compensatory (refers to regeneration, after resection of loss of an area) or exercise, w/c results in hyperplasia of the muscle tissue
What is the mechanism of hyperplasia
It usually mediated by the increase in the growth factors or growth factor receptors, or activation of particular intercellular pathways
What are the pathologic mechanism of hyperplasia/hypertrophy
Increase in the workload to the heart will lead to an increase in the myocardial cells, by this the heart size can actually double, this will allow the heart to meet the extra demand but there is a limit to the size. Chronic renal failure, will cause a decrease in the serum Ca and and will cause parathyroid hyperplasia.
What is compensatory hyperplasia
When one kidney Is removed the other shows an increase in size
How does atrophy happen in cardiac myocyte
It can increase some kinases that can inhibit apoptosis
What effect does hypertrophy have on cancer
It can increase the incidence of cancer
What is metaplasia
Metaplasia is changing one mature differentiated cell type for another,
Is metaplasia reversible or irreversible
Meataplasia is reversible change
What is the most common example of metaplasia
Change of columnar epithelia to stratified squamous in smokers, or change in transitional epithelia of the bladder due to stones or pancreatic/bile ducts changing their epithelia due to caliculi
What are caliculi
What is the role of metaplsia in the esophagus? Muscle? LOOK AT PAGE 19-23!!!!!!!!!
It is a shift of stratified squamous epithelia irritated by the gastric acid to mucous secreting columnar epithelia that resemble the lining of stomach or intestine. Chronic trauma to the muscle or loose connective tissue will lead to metaplastic bone formation
what is mechanism of metaplasia
It is reprogramming of stem cells under the influence of GF and in case of inflammatory metaplasia, it is under cytokine control
If un checked, metaplasia can differentiate in to ?
Neoplasms, it has a strong propensity to neoplastic changes leading to malignancy
What is dysplasia
It is a carcinoma in situ