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12 Cards in this Set

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cancer
an uncontrolled proliferation of cells that express varying degrees of fidelity to their precursors
carcinoma
any of the various types of malignant neoplasms that derive from epithelial tissue; classified according to invasiveness and changes that indicate anaplasia; may be undifferentiated or resemble the tissue from which it derives
sarcoma
any of the various, usually highly malignant, neoplasms of connective tissue
invasion
direct extension or spread of a tumor within the tissue of origin, with penetration of the basement membrane of host tissue and the surrounding extracellular environment
metastasis
the transfer of malignant cells from one site to another not directly connected with it
benign tumor
does not invade adjacent tissue borders or spread (metastasize) to distant sites; often identified by the suffix "oma", preceded by a reference to the cell or tissue of origin
malignant tumor
tumor that invades and/or metastasizes where subpopulations of tumor cells proliferate; usually carry the same name as their benign counterparts, with the suffix "carcinoma" to indicate epithelial origin or "sarcoma" to indicated mesenchymal (mesodermal cells) origin
anaplasia
lack of differentiation in a cancer cell (degree correlates with aggressiveness)
carcinoma in situ
localized malignant tumor that has not yet acquired invasive potential
mutagens
agents that can permanently alter the genetic constitution of a cell
oncogene
tumorigenic and transforming DNA sequences in human tumors that are mutants of normal proto-oncogenes which control growth and differentiation
tumor suppressor gene
a mutation that creates a deficiency of a normal gene product which controls cellular proliferation causing tumor formation