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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
natural immunity
bodily defense mediated by cells involved in the inflammatory responses; is not affected by prior exposure to the offending agent
acquired immunity
bodily defense mediated by specific sensitizing exposure to the offending agent (antigen); response is magnified by subsequent exposures to the same antigen
T lymphocytes
cells that recognize specific antigens on the surface of another cell, and respond by intrinsic factors or exogenous signals from extracellular molecules
CD4 cells
helper T lymphocytes
CD8 cells
killer or cytotoxic T lymphocytes
B lymphocytes
cells that bear membrane immunoglobulin and secrete antibody
natural killer cells
a subgroup of lymphocytes that have the capacity to recognize and kill various tumor and virus-infected cells
mononuclear phagocytes (monos)/macrophages
monos are found in virtually all organs and connective tissues, forming a filtering system for foreign material in blood; they also play a critical role in the induction of immune responses and resolution of inflammatory reactions
major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
an intricate system of membrane proteins that is the main target for the rejection of transplanted organs
human leukocyte antigen (HLA)
MHC antigen that allow for self-recognition during cell-cell interactions in the immune response
hypersensitivity reaction -
an immune response that results in tissue injury
Type I hypersensitivity reaction; localized/generalized reaction that occurs immediately after exposure to a previously sensitized antigen
cytotoxic hypersensitivity
Type II hypersensitivity reaction caused by IgG or IgM cytotoxic antibodies directed against antigen on cell surfaces or in connective tissue
immune complex disease
Type III hypersensitivity involves tissue injury mediated by immune complexes (Systemic Lupus, Rheumatoid Arthritis)
serum sickness
an acute, self-limited disease that occurs 6-8 days after an injection of a foreign protein; characterized by fever, arthralgias, vasculitis, acute kidney damage
cell-mediated immunity
Type IV hypersensitivity; an antigen-elicited cellular immune reaction that results in tissue damage but does not require the participation of antibodies
delayed-type hypersensitivity
a tissue reaction that occurs in response to the subcutaneous injection of a soluble antigen, reaching peak intensity 24-48 hours after injection
hyperacute rejection
occurs within minutes to hours after organ/tissue transplantation; mediated by preformed antibodies
acute rejection
occurs in the first few weeks after tissue transplantation probably involving both cell-mediated and humoral mechanisms
chronic rejection
occurs several months to years after transplantation and show histologic changes very different from the acute pattern
graft-versus-host reaction (GVD)
occurs in bone marrow transplantation when lymphocytes in the grafted marrow reject host tissues; also occurs when immunodeficient patients are transfused with blood products containing HLA-incompatible lymphocytes
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
a chronic, progressive, fatal disease caused by the human immunodificiency virus (HIV) infection and destruction of CD4 lymphocytes leading to impaired immune function and a variety of defects
an immune response generated against self-antigens as a result of a breakdown in the ability of the immune system to differentiate between self and non-self antigen