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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the job of the large arteries?
Storage and propulsion
What is the job of the muscular artery?
Regulation of pressure
Are capillaries small or large?
Very small--diameter equal to that of an RBC
Do capillaries have a slow or fast flow rate?
Slow flow rate
What are the characteristics of larger veins?
Thin walled, valves, and large volumes
What are activators of the endothelium?
Cytokines
Complement products
Hypoxia
What are induced genes of the endothelium?
Adhesion molecules
Cytokines/chemokines
Growth factors
MHC molecules
How do we identify the endothelium?
Weibel Palade bodies
CD 31 (PECAM 1)
CD 34
What is arteriosclerosis?
Rigidity and thickening of blood vessels
What are the 3 types of arteriosclerosis?
Monckberg
Arteriolorsclerosis
Atherosclerosis
What is Monckberg arteriosclerosis?
Medial calcific sclerosis--involves the media of arteries--ring like calcifications--does not obstruct the blood flow because the intima is not involved
What does Monckberg arteriosclerosis result in?
Stiff, calcific "pipstream" arteries
What is arteriolosclerosis?
Hyaline thickening or proliferative changes of small arteries and arterioles--occurs often in the kidneys
What is hyaline arteriolosclerosis?
Hyaline thickening of the arteriolar walls--called benign nephrosclerosis in the kidney and is associated with hypertension
What is hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis?
Concentric, laminated, "onionskin" thickening of the arteriolar walls
What happens in hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis?
Deposition of fibrinoid material in arterioles progressing to fibrinoid necrosis
What is a commonly associated with hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis?
Malignant hypertension
What is the disease progression of atherosclerosis?
Fatty dot
Fatty streak
Intermediate lesion
Atheroma
Fibroaheroma
Complicated plaque
Are fatty streaks intracellular or extracellular?
Intracellular--foam cells and plaque not raised
What is an atheroma?
Central accumulation of lipid (Core)
What is fibroatheroma?
Fibrous tissue laid down (Fibrous cap) and calcification
What is a complicated plaque?
Endothelial damage
Thrombus
Hemorrhage into plaque
What are the most common places for deposition of atherosclerosis plaques?
Abdominal aorta
Cardiac
Femoral
What are the risk factors for atherosclerosis?
Increasing age
More commen in men and postmenopausal women
Hypercholesterolemia
Hypertension
Diabetes Mellitus
Smoking
Lifestyle
Which type of denisty lipoprotein provides a protective effect?
HDL's--the good cholesterol
What are the "BIG 4" risk factors associated with atherosclerosis?
Hypertension
Diabetes
Smoking
Hyperlipidemia
What is the first step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis?
Endothelial injury--Hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, immune mechanisms, etc
After edothelial injury, what happens?
Moncytes bind to the damaged endothelium and become foam cells

Platelets adhere to damaged intima causing smooth muscle cells to migrate into the intima

Smooth muscle cells produce matrix and lipids accumulate in SM cells forming lesions
What are the characteristics of an AAA?
Pulsatile abdominal mass
Between renal arteries and bifurcation
Thrombus/Embolus in legs or elsewhere
Rupture
What is thought to weaking the abdominal aorta wall?
MetaloProteinases (MMP's)--digest collagen during repair process
What happens in hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis?
Deposition of fibrinoid material in arterioles progressing to fibrinoid necrosis
What is a commonly associated with hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis?
Malignant hypertension
What is the disease progression of atherosclerosis?
Fatty dot
Fatty streak
Intermediate lesion
Atheroma
Fibroaheroma
Complicated plaque
Are fatty streaks intracellular or extracellular?
Intracellular--foam cells and plaque not raised
What is an atheroma?
Central accumulation of lipid (Core)
What is fibroatheroma?
Fibrous tissue laid down (Fibrous cap) and calcification
What is a complicated plaque?
Endothelial damage
Thrombus
Hemorrhage into plaque
What are the most common places for deposition of atherosclerosis plaques?
Abdominal aorta
Cardiac
Femoral
What are the risk factors for atherosclerosis?
Increasing age
More commen in men and postmenopausal women
Hypercholesterolemia
Hypertension
Diabetes Mellitus
Smoking
Lifestyle
Which type of denisty lipoprotein provides a protective effect?
HDL's--the good cholesterol
What are the "BIG 4" risk factors associated with atherosclerosis?
Hypertension
Diabetes
Smoking
Hyperlipidemia
What is the first step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis?
Endothelial injury--Hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, immune mechanisms, etc
After edothelial injury, what happens?
Moncytes bind to the damaged endothelium and become foam cells

Platelets adhere to damaged intima causing smooth muscle cells to migrate into the intima

Smooth muscle cells produce matrix and lipids accumulate in SM cells forming lesions
What are the characteristics of an AAA?
Pulsatile abdominal mass
Between renal arteries and bifurcation
Thrombus/Embolus in legs or elsewhere
Rupture
What is thought to weaking the abdominal aorta wall?
MetaloProteinases (MMP's)--digest collagen during repair process
What happens in hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis?
Deposition of fibrinoid material in arterioles progressing to fibrinoid necrosis
What is a commonly associated with hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis?
Malignant hypertension
What is the disease progression of atherosclerosis?
Fatty dot
Fatty streak
Intermediate lesion
Atheroma
Fibroaheroma
Complicated plaque
Are fatty streaks intracellular or extracellular?
Intracellular--foam cells and plaque not raised
What is an atheroma?
Central accumulation of lipid (Core)
What is fibroatheroma?
Fibrous tissue laid down (Fibrous cap) and calcification
What is a complicated plaque?
Endothelial damage
Thrombus
Hemorrhage into plaque
What are the most common places for deposition of atherosclerosis plaques?
Abdominal aorta
Cardiac
Femoral
What are the risk factors for atherosclerosis?
Increasing age
More commen in men and postmenopausal women
Hypercholesterolemia
Hypertension
Diabetes Mellitus
Smoking
Lifestyle
Which type of denisty lipoprotein provides a protective effect?
HDL's--the good cholesterol
What are the "BIG 4" risk factors associated with atherosclerosis?
Hypertension
Diabetes
Smoking
Hyperlipidemia
What is the first step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis?
Endothelial injury--Hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, immune mechanisms, etc
After edothelial injury, what happens?
Moncytes bind to the damaged endothelium and become foam cells

Platelets adhere to damaged intima causing smooth muscle cells to migrate into the intima

Smooth muscle cells produce matrix and lipids accumulate in SM cells forming lesions
What are the characteristics of an AAA?
Pulsatile abdominal mass
Between renal arteries and bifurcation
Thrombus/Embolus in legs or elsewhere
Rupture
What is thought to weaking the abdominal aorta wall?
MetaloProteinases (MMP's)--digest collagen during repair process
What happens in hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis?
Deposition of fibrinoid material in arterioles progressing to fibrinoid necrosis
What is a commonly associated with hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis?
Malignant hypertension
What is the disease progression of atherosclerosis?
Fatty dot
Fatty streak
Intermediate lesion
Atheroma
Fibroaheroma
Complicated plaque
Are fatty streaks intracellular or extracellular?
Intracellular--foam cells and plaque not raised
What is an atheroma?
Central accumulation of lipid (Core)
What is fibroatheroma?
Fibrous tissue laid down (Fibrous cap) and calcification
What is a complicated plaque?
Endothelial damage
Thrombus
Hemorrhage into plaque
What are the most common places for deposition of atherosclerosis plaques?
Abdominal aorta
Cardiac
Femoral
What are the risk factors for atherosclerosis?
Increasing age
More commen in men and postmenopausal women
Hypercholesterolemia
Hypertension
Diabetes Mellitus
Smoking
Lifestyle
Which type of denisty lipoprotein provides a protective effect?
HDL's--the good cholesterol
What are the "BIG 4" risk factors associated with atherosclerosis?
Hypertension
Diabetes
Smoking
Hyperlipidemia
What is the first step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis?
Endothelial injury--Hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, immune mechanisms, etc
After edothelial injury, what happens?
Moncytes bind to the damaged endothelium and become foam cells

Platelets adhere to damaged intima causing smooth muscle cells to migrate into the intima

Smooth muscle cells produce matrix and lipids accumulate in SM cells forming lesions
What are the characteristics of an AAA?
Pulsatile abdominal mass
Between renal arteries and bifurcation
Thrombus/Embolus in legs or elsewhere
Rupture
What is thought to weaking the abdominal aorta wall?
MetaloProteinases (MMP's)--digest collagen during repair process
What is a luetic aneurysm?
Aortic anuerysm caused by tertiary syphilis--Endarteritis obliterans of the vasa vorum of the aortic wall
What type of effect does a syphilitic aneurysm produce?
"Tree barking" effect
What is an aortic dissection?
A tear in the aortic wall between the laminar planes of media
What are the clinical symptoms of an aortic dissection?
Severe pain radiating through to the back--progresses downward as dissection progresses
What are causes of aortic dissection?
Hypertension (males 40-60)
Marfan's Syndrome
Iatrogenic
Pregnancy
Where do Berry Aneurysms occur?
Small lesions that are most often seen in the circle of willis
Are Berry aneurysms congential?
No--they are not present at birth but they are due to a congential defect in the vessel wall
What are Berry aneurysms the most frequent cause of?
Subarachnoid hemorrhage
What is the definition of hypertension?
>140/>90
Who are especially prone to hypertension?
African Americans
What is the most common cause of hypertension?
Unknown etiology
What are secondary causes of hypertension?
Renal
Endocrine
Cardiac
Neurologic
What is the definition of Malignant Hypertension?
>200/>120 mmHg
What is the main concern in a patient with hypertension?
If the tissues are being adequately perfused or not
What are the characteristics of a benign blood vessel tumor?
Vascular channels
Lined by normal appearing endothelium