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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Five Major Components of the extracellular matrix
1. Collagen
2. Basement Membrane
3. Structural Glycoproteins
4. Elastic fibers
5. Proteoglycans
Describe four phases of normal cell growth factor.
M (mitosis) Phase - Interval between onset of the mitotic prophase and the end of telophase.

G1 (GAP) Phase - Presynthetic; following mitosis the cell is devoted to its specialized activity.

S (Synthesis) Phase - Doubling of DNA takes place

G2 Phase - Postmitotic; following DNA synthesis, before next M phase (mitosis)
Three groups of cells of the body based on their regenerative capacity, give examples of each
LABILE - continuously dividing (epeidermis and GI, resp., urinary, genital gract mucosa, bone marrow, lymphoid tissue (stem cells))

STABLE - Lowe level of replication usually, but can undergo raid division in response to tissue injury; (endocrine, endothelium)

PERMANENT - Nondividing, cannot undergo mitotic division postnatally; (neurons, cardiac myocytes, lens cells)
Define cell matrix interactions
The physical contact between cells and their surrounding extracellular matrix.
Why cell-matrix interactions are important
The structural and functional inegrity of normal mature tissues depends on a close relationship between cells and their surrounding CT matrix. Cell migration and differentiation during would healing also depends on this integrity.
Cytokine Function
Cytokines are soluble proteins that bind to specific cell surface receptors, and stimulate mitogenic growth factors in order to modulate cell behavior
Types of Cytokines
Macrophage -derived Growth Factor

Platelet Derived Growth Factor,

Epidermal Growth Factor

Fibroblast Growth Factor

Transforming Growth Factor - B
Three (3) Mechanisms of wound healing that operates simulatneously after the inflammatory phase.
CONTRACTION - inward migration of surrounding mesenchymal cells causes an initial reduction in size of wound; myofibroblasts then migrate within 2-3 days after injury actively contracting the size of the lesion.

REPAIR - wound is eventually replaced by a scar formed from granulation tissue as a result of a process of angiogenesis ( Pronounced vascular proliferation), cell proliferation, and collagen synthesis.

REGENERATION - Missing cells are replaced by new ones.
Differentiate between healing of wounds by primary and secondary intention.
PRIMARY - healing of clean incision.

Secondary - Occurs with more extensive loss of tissue or failure to approximate edges.
Four local factors which influence wound healing
Type, size, location

Vascular supply


Four systemic factors that influence wound healing.
Circulatory Status

Infection -septic pt./embolus

Metabolic status

Nutritional Status
Two factor which would lead to deficient scar formation
A: Wound dehiscence - most common after abdominal surgery due to increased mechanical stress from abnormal movements such as vomiting, coughing, etc. or from systemic factors that predispose such as poor metabolic status.

B: Ulceration - due to inadequate intrinsic blood supply to injured area.
Keloids and Contractures
KELOID - Excessive deposition of extracellular matrix resulting in hypertrophic scar.

CONTRACTURE - Exaggerated healing causing deformity of wound and surrounding tissue.
Types of Collagens
Type I - Bone, skin, tendon

Type II - Cartilage

Type III - Embryo, blood vessels, uterus, GI

Type IV - Exclusively the Basement Membrane
All epithelia (epidural, endocrine, genitourinary, respiratory, GI) are separated from the stroma by continuous basement membranes.