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106 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is cancer a disease of?
Older people
What is neoplasia?
New growth or form; excessive and unregulated proliferation that becomes independent of growth factors
Does neoplasm arise from one or multiple cells that have incurred genetic change?
Arises from one cell
What is one cell incurring genetic change called?
Clone
Can there be more than one clone going on in a tumor?
Yes--multiple clones can be going on at one time
Do benign tumors metastisize?
No--they are always localized
What has to happen for a tumor to become malignant?
It has to metastisize
What type of tumors are well differentiated?
Benign
What type of tumors lack differentiation?
Malignant
Typically, which type of tumor grows faster?
Malignant
Are benign tumors capable of invasion?
No
Can benign tumors metastisize?
No
Compare the sizes of benign and malignant tumors.
Benign are small
Malignant are big
Compare the cell sizes of benign and malignant tumors.
Benign-cells are normal size
Malignant-cells are bigger; huge
Are benign tumors symmetric or asymmetric?
Symmetric
Are malignant tumors symmetric or asymmetric?
Asymmetric
Describe the margins in a malignant tumor?
Indistinct and infiltrative
Describe the margins in a benign tumor?
Circumscribed
Is necrosis common in benign or malignant tumors?
Malignant tumors
What is the typical age of onset of a benign tumor?
Young
What is the typical age of onset of a malignant tumor?
Old
What are two exceptions to the rule that malignant tumors affect old people?
Testicular and Hodgkin's Disease
What is an important border to look for in a colon polyp?
The muscularis mucosae
Are mixed tumors (epithelial and stromal parts) benign or malignant?
They can be both
Are teratomas benign or malignant?
Ovarian teratomas are usually benign and testicular teratomas are usually malignant
What are the two basic types of cellular components within neoplasms?
Parenchyma and stroma
What is the parenchyma?
The proliferating neoplastic cellular component
What is the stroma?
Supportive non-neoplastic cellular component
Which cellular component is considered to be the "business end" of things?
The parenchyma
What are the two types of stroma?
Desmoplasia and Angiogenesis
What is desmoplaisa?
Increased fibrous tissue stimulated by neoplasm
What is angiogenesis?
Increased blood vessels stimulated by neoplasm
What does scirrous mean?
Stony hard on palpation
What is differentiation?
How well the neoplasm resembles the tissue it originated from
What is well differentiated?
Closely resembles the parent tissue
What is moderately differentiated?
Features of original tissue present, but that is not the dominant appearance
What is poorly differentiated?
Small minority of cellular components resemble the original tissue
What is undifferentiated?
The tissue or origin can't be determined
If you saw abnormal mitotic cells on a histopath slide, what would be the differentiation?
Poorly or undifferentiated
What are signs or markers to look for in a malignancy?
Pleomorphism
Hyperchromatin
Giant cell
Abnormal mitotic cells
What is the characteristic cell in Hodgkin's disease that can be identified on a slide?
The Reed-Sternberg cell
Do tumors typically develop rapidly or slowly?
Usually develop of years
What grow as cohesive, expansile masses that remain localized to the area of origin? They can compress the adjacent tissue and may create a "capsule?"
Benign tumors
What grows by infiltration and destruction of adjacent tissue? They may also become invasive if they bust through the basement membrane?
Malignant tumors
Where is the first place tumors mestastisize to?
The subscapular sinus of lymph nodes
What is desmoplaisa?
Increased fibrous tissue stimulated by neoplasm
What is angiogenesis?
Increased blood vessels stimulated by neoplasm
What does scirrous mean?
Stony hard on palpation
What is differentiation?
How well the neoplasm resembles the tissue it originated from
What is well differentiated?
Closely resembles the parent tissue
What is moderately differentiated?
Features of original tissue present, but that is not the dominant appearance
What is poorly differentiated?
Small minority of cellular components resemble the original tissue
What is undifferentiated?
The tissue or origin can't be determined
If you saw abnormal mitotic cells on a histopath slide, what would be the differentiation?
Poorly or undifferentiated
What are signs or markers to look for in a malignancy?
Pleomorphism
Hyperchromatin
Giant cell
Abnormal mitotic cells
What is the characteristic cell in Hodgkin's disease that can be identified on a slide?
The Reed-Sternberg cell
Do tumors typically develop rapidly or slowly?
Usually develop of years
What grow as cohesive, expansile masses that remain localized to the area of origin? They can compress the adjacent tissue and may create a "capsule?"
Benign tumors
What grows by infiltration and destruction of adjacent tissue? They may also become invasive if they bust through the basement membrane?
Malignant tumors
Where is the first place tumors mestastisize to?
The subscapular sinus of lymph nodes
What are the ways tumors can spread or metastisize?
By seeding of body cavities
Lymphatic spread
Hematogenous spread
What is the major route for most malignant tumors to spread?
Hematogenous
What are the characteristics of a benign tumor?
Small
Well demarcated
Slow growing
Noninvasive
Nonmetastatic
Well differentiated
What are the characteristics of a malignant tumor?
Large
Poorly demarcated
Rapidly growing
Hemorrhage and necrosis
Invasive
Metastaic
Poorly differentiated
What is prevalence?
The overall number of cases in a defined population at a certain date
What is incidence?
The number of new cases during a given period of time
If a disease is fatal, what are the prevalence and incidence compared to each other?
They are equal
What is mortality?
Number of deaths caused by a disease at a specified time
What are two things that can change the mortality rate?
A change in incidence and a change in treatment
What is the most important influence on the likelihood of getting cancer and dying from cancer?
Age
What is significant about the incidence of Hodgkin's lymphoma?
It has a bimodal peak and it is usually a disease diagnosed in the young
Who is usually affected by testicular cancer?
Young males (35-39)
In 1950, we began to see a huge decline in the death rate of stomach cancer, why?
Because of the discover of H. pylori and hygeine improvements
In the 1930's we began to see a huge increase in the amount of lung cancer cases, why?
Cigarrette smoking
In the 1940-1950's we began to see a decline in the rate of uterine cancer, why?
Hysterectomy
What race is at major risk for malignant melanoma?
Caucasians
What race is at major risk for multiple myeloma?
African-Americans
Who tends to be at most risk for gastric cancer?
Japanese
What is the percentage of cancers with a clearly definable genetic etiology?
2-5%
What is the most common environmental cause of cancer?
Chronic Mid-UV radiation
Is tumor formation monoclonal or polyclonal?
Monoclonal
What is the field effect?
Numerous cells in a particular tissue will each have indvidual genetic alterations
What is synchronous neoplasms?
More than one cell undergoing a final genetic change into a cancer clone at the same time in the same location
Is carcinogenesis a single or mulitstep process?
Multistep process at the phenotypic and genotypic levels
Do most tumors have multiple genetic alterations?
Yes--involving several oncogenes and the loss of two or more tumor suppressor genes
What does genetic markers have to do with prognosis?
The more genetic markers that can be identified, the worse the prognosis is
What does gatekeeper mean?
Genes affect tumor growth by influencing cell proliferation
What does caretaker mean?
Genes that do not directly affect cell growth but do affect genomic stability (mutations in p53 and DNA repair genes)
Development of malignant neoplasms requires....
Years
What are two sequences that identify genetically altered cells before malignancy occurs?
Adenoma-Adenomacarcinoma Seq
Dysplasia-Carcinoma Seq
What is an adenocarcinoma?
Malignancy arising in glands or ducts
What is a carcinoma?
Arise from squamous epithelium
What is a sarcoma?
Arise in connective tissue or bone
What does the adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence usually refer to?
Colon cancer
Who has the highest chance of getting colon cancer?
Those with a mutation in the APC gene
What does the adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence require to progress?
Two-hits
When does colon cancer become invasive?
Once it crosses the muscularis mucosae
Where does the Dysplasia-Carcinoma sequence occur?
Cervix
Vulva
Oral Cavity
Skin
What is the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in the skin?
Actinic keratosis
Progression from normal to invasive carcinoma takes at a minimum how long?
10 years and on average requires 20-25 years
What are the steps in the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence?
Normal
Hyperplasia/Hyperkeratosis
Mild/Moderate Dysplasia
Severe Dysplasia
Squamous cell carcinoma
What is initiation in carcinogenesis?
Exposure to a sufficient dose of a chemical carcinogen to cause permanent DNA damage
What can be promotors of carcinogenesis?
Hormones, bile acids, ethanol
What is the specific UV region that causes damage and is important in malignancy?
UVB--formation of pyrimidine dimers that damage DNA
What is another environmental factor causing cancer?
Ionizing radiation
What are the primary oncogenic HPV subtypes causing caner?
16, 18