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47 Cards in this Set

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Pyelonephritis Acute: Affects _______ of kidney
cortex
Pyelonephritis Acute: Spares ____________
glomeruli/vessels
Pyelonephritis Acute: _______ _______ in urine are pathognomonic
WBC casts
name for a pupil that constricts with accomodation but is not reactive to light, and what is it pathognomonic for?
Argyll Robertson pupil. Pathognomonic for 3' syphilis. "Prostitute's pupil" accomodates but does not react.
detect what using apple green biorefringence on Conco red stain?
amyloid
most common cause of amyloidosis?
primary light chain deposition seen with multiple myeloma.
another cause of primary amyloidosis?
Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia.
Secondary amyloidosis can cause what in the kidney?
nephrotic syndrome
disease associated with beta amyloid deposition in cerebral cortex
Alzheimer's
islet cell amyloid deposition characteristic of what
diabetes mellitus type 2
peroxidase-positive cytoplasmic inclusions in granulocytes and myeloblasts, name and primary association
Auer rods; primarily seen in acute promyelocytic leukemia (M3)
treatment of AML M3 can release what, leading to what?
release Auer rods, leading to DIC
RBC casts indicate
glomerular inflammation (nephritic syndromes), ischemia, or malignant hypertension
how to determine if hematuria/pyuria is of renal origin
presence of casts
WBC casts indicate
inflammation in renal interstitium, tubules, and glomeruli
casts often seen in normal urine
hyaline casts
casts seen in chronic renal failure
waxy casts
ESR elevated in
dramatically in infection, malignancy, connective tissue disease; also in pregnancy, inflammatory disease, and anemia
ESR lowered in
sickle cell anemia, CHF, and polycythemia
Should ESR be used for asymptomatic screening
No
ESR used to monitor course of -----
temporal arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica
ESR is expensive and specific. T/F
false. Cheap and nonspecific.
indicates TB granulomas with lobar or perihilar lymph node involvement
Ghon focus and lymph node involvement, Ghon complex.
Does a Ghon complex reflect primary or secondary TB?
primary.
plaque in blood vessel wall
atheromata
plaque or nodule composed of lipid-laden histiocytes in skin, especially eyelids
xanthoma
lipid deposit in tendon, especially Achilles
tendinous xanthoma
lipid deposit in cornea, nonspecific (arcus senilis)
corneal arcus
laminated, concentric, calcific spherules in tumor
Psammoma bodies
Psammoma bodies seen in:
1. papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid 2. serous papillary cystadenoma of ovary 3. meningioma 4. malignant mesothelioma "PSaMMoma" Papillary (thyroid), Serous (ovary), Meningioma, Mesothelioma
Biconcave RBC
normal
Spherocytes
hereditary spherocytosis, autoimmmune hemolysis
Elliptocyte
hereditary elliptocytosis
Macro-ovalocyte
megaloblastic anemia, marrow failure
Helmet cell, schistocyte
DIC, traumatic hemolysis
Sickle cell
obviously sickle cell anemia
Teardrop cell
myeloid metaplasia with myelofibroblasts
Acanthocyte
spiny appearance in abetalipoproteinemia
Target cell
Thalassemia, liver disease, HbC
Poikilocyte
Nonuniform shapes in TTP/HUS, microvascular damage, DIC
Burr cell
TTP/HUS
HLA B27
Psoriasis, Ankylosing spondylitis, Inflammatory bowel disease, Reiter's syndrome ("PAIR")
HLA 13,17
Psoriasis
HLA DR2
Multiple sclerosis, hay fever
HLA DR3, DR4
Diabetes mellitus type I
HLA DR5
Pernicious anemia -- B12 deficiency
HLA DR7
Steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome