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56 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what anatomical structure does the pituitary gland rest upon
Sella turcica
what are the two lobes of the pituitary gland called
Anterior pituitary and Posterior pituitary
what is the function of the pituitary gland
Hormone secretion
what structure regulates the functional activity of the anterior pituitary
hypothalmus
what are the five cell types of the anterior pituitary
somatotrophs, lactotrophs, corticotrophs, thyrotrophs, gonadotrophs
how is hormone secretion of the pituitary gland inhibited
most hormones are controlled predominately by positive-acting releasing factors from the hypothalmus
what two clinical syndromes are associated with adenoma
hyperpituitarism-caused by functional adenoma within the anterior lobe, expanding pituitary adenomas may compress the adjacent nonneoplastic anterior pituitary or the pituitary stalk
name the four most common causes of hypopituitarism
ischemic injury, radiation, inflammatory reactions, and nonfunctioning adenomas
Simmonds disease is an insufficiency of three organs due to a loss of their tropic hormones
thyroid, adrenals and gonads
the patients who have Froelich syndrome show what physical characterstics?
obesity, sexual infantilism, atrophy, hypoplasia of the gonads and altered secondary sex characterstics
what hormones are released by the neurohypophysis
oxytocin and vasopressin
diabetes insipidus is induced by anti-diuretic hormone ADH deficiency what are some of the causes of ADH deficiency
head trauma, tumors, inflammatory disorders of the hypothalmus and pituitary as well as surgical procedures involving these organs
primary empty sella syndrome
defect in diaphragma sellae that allows the arachnoidea mater and CSF to herniate into sella resulting in epxansion of the sella and compression of the pituitary
secondary empty sella syndrome
a mass such as a pituitary adenoma enlarges the sella but then is removed by surgery or radiation
what is the only true criterion of a malignant pituitary gland tumor
the demonstration of metastases usually to lymph nodes bone liver and sometimes else where
which tumors are most likely to metastasize to the pituitary?
breast and lung
the thyroid gland develops as a tubular evagination from what structure?
Pharyngeal epithelium
what does the normal adult thyroid weigh?
15-20gms
what is the third lobe of the thyroid called
Pyramidal lobe
Cretinism
hypothyrodisim devleoping in infancy or early childhood symptoms include, impaired development of the skeletal system and CNS
Myxedema
applied to hypothyroidism developing in older child or adult characterized by a slowing of physical and mental activity
what is the triad of clinical findings of graves disease?
hyperthyroidism owing to hyperfunctional difusse enlargement of the thyroid, infiltrative ophthalmopathy with resultant exophthalmos, localized inflitrative dermopathy
where is thyroglossal duct cyst usually located
midline of the neck and anterior to the trachea
waht are Hurthle cells
In Hashimoto thyroditis the thyroid follicles are small and are lined in many areas by epithelial cells with abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm
DeQuervains thyroditis has a suspected viral etiology, why?
majority of patients have a history of an upper respiratory infection just before th onset of thyroiditis
what is endemic goiter
occurs in geographical areas where the soil water and food supply contains only low levels of iodine
on a radioactive iodine uptake scan of a "hot" nodule is likely to be
Benign
how high is the risk of malignant transformation of a follicular adenoma
low risk
what is the most commonb morphologic variant of thyroid carcinoma
papillary
what are some of the histological hallmarks of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
branching papillae ground glass or Orphan Annie nuclei eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions and psammoma bodies
papillary carcinoma has a peak incidence in ages 20-40 years when is the peak incidence of follicular carcinoma
age 40-50
what are the common metastasis sites for follicular carcinoma
prafollicular cells or C cells
what is the normal wieght of an adult parathyroid gland
35-40mg
what are the three cells types of parathyroid gland
chief cells, oxyphil cells, transitional oxyphils
what are the major functions of PTH
activates osteoclast, moblizing calcium from bone, increase renal tubular resorption of calcium, increase converison of vit D to its active dihydroxy form in kidneys
what si the most important cause of primary hyperparathyroidism
parathyroid adenoma resulting in hypercalcemia
what are some of the clinical manifestations of PHPT?
bone disease, nephrolithiasis, GI disturbances, CNS alterations, depression, lethargy, neuromuscular abnormalities
what is the most common cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism
renal failure
list some of the causes and clincial manifestations of hypoparathyroidism
Surgically induced congential abscence of all glands priamry atrophy of the gland familial hypoparathyroidism, tetany, chvostek sign and trousseau sign
what are the 3 functional zones of the adult adrenal cortex
Zona glomerulosa, Zona fasciculata, Zona reticularis
Cushing syndrome
hypercortisolism caused by any condition that produces an elevation in glucocorticoid levels
major clinical features of cushings syndrome
central obesity, moon faces, weakness, fatigability, hirsutism, hypertension, plethora, diabetes, osteoporosis, skin striae
what are the three sources of endogenous cushings syndrome
primary hypothalamic-pituitary disease associated with hypersecretion of ACTH hypersecretion of cortisol by adrenal adenoma carcinoma or nodular hyperplasia
what is primary hyperaldosteronism PHA characterized by
excessive levels of aldosterone causes sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant hypertension and hypokalemia
what is Conn Syndrome
primary hyperaldosternoism caused by an aldosterone-secreting adenoma in one adrenal gland
briefly list some causes of acute adrenocortical insufficiency
any form of stress that requires immediate increase in steroid output from galnds incapable of responding, rapid withdrawal of steroids
what are the characteristics of Waterhouse-Friedrichsen syndrome
overwhelming bacterial infection, rapidly progressive hypotension leading to shock, DIC with widespread purpura
what is Addisons disease
chronic adrenocortical insufficiency, is uncommon disorder resulting from progressive destruction of the adrenal cortex
clinical manifestations of Addisons disease
progressive weakness and easy fatigability, GI disturbances, hyperpigmentation of the skin, hyperkalemia
what are some of the causes of secondary adrenocortical insuffiency
any disorder of hypothalmus and pituitary such as metastatic carcinoma infection infarction or irradiation which reduces the output of ACTH
what catecholamines are secreted by the adrenal medulla
epinephrine and norepinephrine
what is the major clinical complication of a pheochromocytoma
hypertension
what is a chemodectoma
paraganglioma originiating in the jugulotympanic body
what is another name for the brain sand seen microscopically in the pineal gland
Acervulus cerebri
MEN I Werner syndrome primarly affects what three organs
parathyroids, pancreas, pituitary
what is Sipple syndrome
MEN IIA or Sipple syndrome is characterized by pheochromocytoma, medullary carcinoma and parathyroid hperplasia