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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the mesonephric duct forms what in the adult kidney
Ureter, pelvic, calyces and collecting tubules
why is the renal medulla particulary vulnerable to ischemia?
the medulla is relatively avascular and the blood in the capillary loops in the medulla has a remarkably low hematocrit value
the nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney what are the components of the nephron
glomerulus enclosed within Bowman capsule and its attached tubule, consisting of proximal convulted protion, loop of Henle and distal convulted portion
what are the two major characterstics of glomerular filtration
the major characterstics are extraordinarly high permeability to water and small solutes accounted for by the highly fenstrated endothelium and impermeability to proteins
what are the three components of juxtaglomerular apparatus
juxtaglomerular cells, macula densa, and nongranular cells
glomerular diseases are frequently
immunilogically mediated
Azotemia
biochemical abnormality that refers to an elevation of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels and is largely related to decreased glomerular filtration rate
pre-renal azotemia
encountered where there is hypoperfusion of the kidneys that impairs renal function in the abscence of parenchymal damage
post renal azotemia
whenever urine flow is obstructed below the level of the kidney
severe total body edema is referred to as
Anarsca
Nephritic syndrome
glomerular syndrome dominated by the acute onset of usually grossly visible hematuria mild to mederate proteinuria and hypertension it is the classic presentation of acute post streptococcal glomerulnephritis
Nephrotic syndrome
characterized by heavy porteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, severe edema,hyperlipidema, and lipiduria
four stages of chronic renal failure
diminished renal reserve, renal insufficiency, renal failure, endstage renal disease
true hypoplastic kidney will show what characterstics
truly hypoplastic kidney should show no scars and should posses a reduced number of renal lobes and pyramids
patient who has ectopic kidney is predisposed to bacterial infection of the kidney-the ectopic kidney is located
just above the pelvic brim or sometimes within the pelvis
horseshow kidney more commonly results from fusion of which poles the upper or lower?
90% lower pole, 10% upper pole
gross appearance of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease is
kidneys are enlarged and have a smooth external appereance. on sectioning numerous small cysts in cortex and medulla give kidney a sponge like appearance
what are the two most common causes of glomerulonephritis
antibody-mediated injury and cell mediated injury
what are the four major tissue reactions that occur with glomerulonephritis
hypercelluarity, basement mebrane thickening, hylanization and sclerosis
the pathogensis of antiglomerular basement membrane nephritis
antibodies are directed against intrinsic fixed antigens that are normal components of the glomerular basement membrane properq
what is the histological hallmark of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
the presence of crescents in most glomeruli
Good pasture syndrome
simultaneous appearance of proliferative usually rapidly progressive glomerulonephiritis and necrotizing hemorrhagic interstitial pneumonitis
what is the immunoflurescent staining pattern in membranous glomerulonephritis
Granular IgG and C3 diffuse
what is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults
membranous glomerulonephritis
lipid nephrosis is associated with a diffuse loss of foot porcesses of epithelial cells in glomeruli that appear virtually normal by light microscopy this is the most common cuase of what syndrome in children
Nephrotic
whatimmunoglobuin is deposited in mesangial regions in Berger disease?
IgA deposits
who does Berger disease normally affect?
children and young adults
what are the components of syndrome Henoch-Schonlein-Purpura?
Purpuric skin lesions, abdominal manifestations, nonmigratory arthralgais, and renal abnormalities
what are the renal manifestations of Henoch-Schonlein-Purpura
gross and microscopic hematuria, porteinuria and nephritic syndrome
what is the nature of the glomerular lesions occuring in the course of bacterial endocarditis
glomerular lesions represent a type of immune complex nephritis initiated by bacterial antigen-antibody complexes
Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions
nodular glomerulosclerosis-glomerular lesions take the form of ovoid or spheroid often laminated hyaline masses situated in the periphery of the glomerulus
what are the main morphologic changes of diabetic glomerulosclerosis and diabetic nephropathy
DG-capillary basement membrane thickening, diffuse diabetic glomerulosclerosis, DN-includes glomerular lesions and renal vascular lesions
where are amyloid deposits found in the kidney
glomeruli, blood vessel walls, and intersitium
what is the main cause of renal dyfunction in multiple myeloma?
Bence Jones porteinuria
What are the major etiologic agents of urinary tract infections
Escherichia coli, Proteus, Klbesiella, Enterobacter, Streptococcus
What are two possible routes of urinary tract infections
Blood stream, lower urinary tract
Why are UTIs more common in women then men
Shorter urethra
what are the methods of bacterial propagation into the renal pelvis and the renal parenchyma
vesicoureteral reflux and intrarenal reflux
when there is total or almost complete urinary tract obstruction hihg in the urinary tract and a suppurative exudate fills the renal pelvis
pyonephrosis
a true urinary infection can be established by presence of what in the urine
Leukocytes-denoted upper or lower UTI, leukocyte casts-formed in renal tubules, diagonsis of infection is by cultures
chronic pyelonephritis
chronic tubulointersitial disorder in which chronic tubulointersitial inflammation and renal scarring are associated with pathologic involvement of calyces and pelvis
what are the three major ways that drug.toxin can produce renal injury
may trigger an intersitial immunolgic reaction exemplified by the actue hypersensitivty nephritis by drugs such as methicillin
what are the two classifications of hypertension
primary or essential hypertension and secondary hypertension
renal disease associated with hyaline arteriosclerosis is called
Benign nephrosclerosis
what are some of the major causes of renal infarcts
embolism-the major source of emboli is mural thrombosis in the left atrium and ventricle as a result of mycardial infarction
75% of kidney stones are comprised of
Calcim oxalate, or calcium oxalate mixed with calcium phosphate
magnesium ammonium phosphate stones are formed when?
infections by urea splitting bacteria which convert urea to ammonia Staghorn calculi
what are the most common benign malignant tumors of kidney
Benign-papillary adenoma, Malignant-renal cell carcinoma
what is a major carciongenic risk factor or renal cell carcionma
tobacco
what is the most common renal tumor in children
Wilms tumor
what benign renal tumor is found in 25 to 50% of patients with tuberous sclerosis
angiomyolipoma