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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what precent of the marrow space is actively involved in hematopoiesis in adults
50%
In the premature infant foci of hematopoiesis are frequently evident in the
liver spleen lymph nodes and thymus
list the five types of formed elements in circulating blood
erythrocytes, erythroid precursors, lymphocytes and monocytes and their precursors unidentified or disintergrating cells
the normal myeloid erythroid ratio is
3:1
the dominant cell types in the meyloid compartment include
myelocytes, metamyelocytes, and granulocytes
anemia
reduction below normal limits of the total circulating red cell mass, measured by hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations
list the three major mechanisms associated with the development of anemia
blood loss, increased rate of destruction, impaired red cell production
acute blood loss
the alterations reflect principally the loss of blood volume rather than the loss of hemoglobin
chronic blood loss
induces anemia only when the rate of loss exceeds the regnerative capacity of the erythroid precursors or when iron reserves are depleted
hemolytic anemias are characterized by
shortening of normal red cell life span, accumulation of the products of hemoglobin catabolism, marked increaes in erythropoiesis within the bone marrow
list the two areas in which red cell breakdown occurs in hemolytic anemia
mononuclear phagocytic cells of the spleen and hte intravascular compartment
list two main mechanisms associated with development of hemolytic anemia
intravascular hemolysis-mechanical injury ocmplement fixation to red cells. Extravascular hemolysis-hereditary spherocytosis sickle cell anemia
list the three major causes of hereditary hemolytic anemias
red cell membrane disorders, red cell enzyme deficiencies, disorders of hemoglobin synthesis
functional splenectomy
otherwise known as autosplenectomy-erthrostasis in the spleen leads to thrombosis and infarction of at least marked tissue hypoxia.
the three factors which affect the rate and change of sickling in HbS are
the amount of HbS and its interaction with the other hemoglobin chains in the cell, the rate of HbS polymerization which significantly affects the hemoglobin per cell and fall in pH which reduces oxygen affinity
in the spleen focal fibrous scars containing deposits of hemosiderin and calcium are known as
Gandy-Gamma nodules
the classification of immunohemolytic anemia is based upon which three antibodies?
Warm antibody type, cold aggulutinin type, cold hemolysins
what are the five criteria for TTP (thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
fever, thrombocytopenia, micorangiopathic hemolytic anemia, transient neurologic deficits, and renal failure
megaloblastic anemia
diverse group of entities having in common impaired DNA synthesis and distinctive morphologic changes in the blood and bone marrow
two types of megaloblastic anemia
pernicious anemia which is the major form of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia and folate deficiency anemia
the feature that sets pernicious anemia apart from other B12 deficiency megaloblastic anemias is
atropic gastritis with failure of production of intrinsic factor
pernicious anemia is believed to result from
immunologically mediated possibly autoimmune destruction of gastric mucosa
the principle alteration of the central nervous system in cases of pernicious anemia is
involvement of the spinal cord where there is myelin degeneration of the dorsal and lateral tracts sometimes followed by loss of axons
the three most common laboratory findings in cases of aplastic anemia are
anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia
list causes of aplastic anemia
acquired:idiopathic, chemical agents, idiosyncratic, physical agents. Inherited:faconi anemia
myelophthisic anemia
space occupying lesions that destroy significant amounts of bone marrow or disturb the marrow architecture and depress its productive capability
what are the major causes of thrombocytopenia
decreased production of platelets, decreased platelet survival, sequestration, dilutional
list four major causes of hemorrhagic diatheses
incread fragility of vessels, platelet deficiency or dysfunction, derangements in the coagulation mechanisms, combination of these
petechiae
minute 1-2mm hemorrhages into skin mucous membranes or serosal surfaces associated with locally increased intravascular pressure low platelet counts
purpura
2-3mm hemorrhages are called purpura and may be associated with similar pathologies as well as trauma local vascular inflammation